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  1. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" standalone="no"?>
  2. <!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
  3. "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd" [
  4. <!ENTITY % aptent SYSTEM "apt.ent">
  5. %aptent;
  6. ]>
  7. <refentry>
  8. <refentryinfo>
  9. &apt-author.jgunthorpe;
  10. &apt-author.team;
  11. <author>
  12. <firstname>Daniel</firstname>
  13. <surname>Burrows</surname>
  14. <contrib>Initial documentation of Debug::*.</contrib>
  15. <email>dburrows@debian.org</email>
  16. </author>
  17. &apt-email;
  18. &apt-product;
  19. <!-- The last update date -->
  20. <date>16 January 2010</date>
  21. </refentryinfo>
  22. <refmeta>
  23. <refentrytitle>apt.conf</refentrytitle>
  24. <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
  25. <refmiscinfo class="manual">APT</refmiscinfo>
  26. </refmeta>
  27. <!-- Man page title -->
  28. <refnamediv>
  29. <refname>apt.conf</refname>
  30. <refpurpose>Configuration file for APT</refpurpose>
  31. </refnamediv>
  32. <refsect1><title>Description</title>
  33. <para><filename>apt.conf</filename> is the main configuration file for
  34. the APT suite of tools, but by far not the only place changes to options
  35. can be made. All tools therefore share the configuration files and also
  36. use a common command line parser to provide a uniform environment.</para>
  37. <orderedlist>
  38. <para>When an APT tool starts up it will read the configuration files
  39. in the following order:</para>
  40. <listitem><para>the file specified by the <envar>APT_CONFIG</envar>
  41. environment variable (if any)</para></listitem>
  42. <listitem><para>all files in <literal>Dir::Etc::Parts</literal> in
  43. alphanumeric ascending order which have no or "<literal>conf</literal>"
  44. as filename extension and which only contain alphanumeric,
  45. hyphen (-), underscore (_) and period (.) characters -
  46. otherwise they will be silently ignored.</para></listitem>
  47. <listitem><para>the main configuration file specified by
  48. <literal>Dir::Etc::main</literal></para></listitem>
  49. <listitem><para>the command line options are applied to override the
  50. configuration directives or to load even more configuration files.</para></listitem>
  51. </orderedlist>
  52. </refsect1>
  53. <refsect1><title>Syntax</title>
  54. <para>The configuration file is organized in a tree with options organized into
  55. functional groups. Option specification is given with a double colon
  56. notation, for instance <literal>APT::Get::Assume-Yes</literal> is an option within
  57. the APT tool group, for the Get tool. Options do not inherit from their
  58. parent groups.</para>
  59. <para>Syntactically the configuration language is modeled after what the ISC tools
  60. such as bind and dhcp use. Lines starting with
  61. <literal>//</literal> are treated as comments (ignored), as well as all text
  62. between <literal>/*</literal> and <literal>*/</literal>, just like C/C++ comments.
  63. Each line is of the form
  64. <literal>APT::Get::Assume-Yes "true";</literal>. The trailing
  65. semicolon and the quotes are required. The value must be on one line, and
  66. there is no kind of string concatenation. It must not include inside quotes.
  67. The behavior of the backslash "\" and escaped characters inside a value is
  68. undefined and it should not be used. An option name may include
  69. alphanumerical characters and the "/-:._+" characters. A new scope can
  70. be opened with curly braces, like:</para>
  71. <informalexample><programlisting>
  72. APT {
  73. Get {
  74. Assume-Yes "true";
  75. Fix-Broken "true";
  76. };
  77. };
  78. </programlisting></informalexample>
  79. <para>with newlines placed to make it more readable. Lists can be created by
  80. opening a scope and including a single string enclosed in quotes followed by a
  81. semicolon. Multiple entries can be included, each separated by a semicolon.</para>
  82. <informalexample><programlisting>
  83. DPkg::Pre-Install-Pkgs {"/usr/sbin/dpkg-preconfigure --apt";};
  84. </programlisting></informalexample>
  85. <para>In general the sample configuration file in
  86. <filename>&docdir;examples/apt.conf</filename> &configureindex;
  87. is a good guide for how it should look.</para>
  88. <para>The names of the configuration items are not case-sensitive. So in the previous example
  89. you could use <literal>dpkg::pre-install-pkgs</literal>.</para>
  90. <para>Names for the configuration items are optional if a list is defined as it can be see in
  91. the <literal>DPkg::Pre-Install-Pkgs</literal> example above. If you don't specify a name a
  92. new entry will simply add a new option to the list. If you specify a name you can override
  93. the option as every other option by reassigning a new value to the option.</para>
  94. <para>Two specials are allowed, <literal>#include</literal> (which is deprecated
  95. and not supported by alternative implementations) and <literal>#clear</literal>:
  96. <literal>#include</literal> will include the given file, unless the filename
  97. ends in a slash, then the whole directory is included.
  98. <literal>#clear</literal> is used to erase a part of the configuration tree. The
  99. specified element and all its descendants are erased.
  100. (Note that these lines also need to end with a semicolon.)</para>
  101. <para>The #clear command is the only way to delete a list or a complete scope.
  102. Reopening a scope or the ::-style described below will <emphasis>not</emphasis>
  103. override previously written entries. Only options can be overridden by addressing a new
  104. value to it - lists and scopes can't be overridden, only cleared.</para>
  105. <para>All of the APT tools take a -o option which allows an arbitrary configuration
  106. directive to be specified on the command line. The syntax is a full option
  107. name (<literal>APT::Get::Assume-Yes</literal> for instance) followed by an equals
  108. sign then the new value of the option. Lists can be appended too by adding
  109. a trailing :: to the list name. (As you might suspect: The scope syntax can't be used
  110. on the command line.)</para>
  111. <para>Note that you can use :: only for appending one item per line to a list and
  112. that you should not use it in combination with the scope syntax.
  113. (The scope syntax implicit insert ::) Using both syntaxes together will trigger a bug
  114. which some users unfortunately relay on: An option with the unusual name "<literal>::</literal>"
  115. which acts like every other option with a name. These introduces many problems
  116. including that a user who writes multiple lines in this <emphasis>wrong</emphasis> syntax in
  117. the hope to append to a list will gain the opposite as only the last assignment for this option
  118. "<literal>::</literal>" will be used. Upcoming APT versions will raise errors and
  119. will stop working if they encounter this misuse, so please correct such statements now
  120. as long as APT doesn't complain explicit about them.</para>
  121. </refsect1>
  122. <refsect1><title>The APT Group</title>
  123. <para>This group of options controls general APT behavior as well as holding the
  124. options for all of the tools.</para>
  125. <variablelist>
  126. <varlistentry><term>Architecture</term>
  127. <listitem><para>System Architecture; sets the architecture to use when fetching files and
  128. parsing package lists. The internal default is the architecture apt was
  129. compiled for.</para></listitem>
  130. </varlistentry>
  131. <varlistentry><term>Default-Release</term>
  132. <listitem><para>Default release to install packages from if more than one
  133. version available. Contains release name, codename or release version. Examples: 'stable', 'testing',
  134. 'unstable', '&stable-codename;', '&testing-codename;', '4.0', '5.0*'. See also &apt-preferences;.</para></listitem>
  135. </varlistentry>
  136. <varlistentry><term>Ignore-Hold</term>
  137. <listitem><para>Ignore Held packages; This global option causes the problem resolver to
  138. ignore held packages in its decision making.</para></listitem>
  139. </varlistentry>
  140. <varlistentry><term>Clean-Installed</term>
  141. <listitem><para>Defaults to on. When turned on the autoclean feature will remove any packages
  142. which can no longer be downloaded from the cache. If turned off then
  143. packages that are locally installed are also excluded from cleaning - but
  144. note that APT provides no direct means to reinstall them.</para></listitem>
  145. </varlistentry>
  146. <varlistentry><term>Immediate-Configure</term>
  147. <listitem><para>Defaults to on which will cause APT to install essential and important packages
  148. as fast as possible in the install/upgrade operation. This is done to limit the effect of a failing
  149. &dpkg; call: If this option is disabled APT does treat an important package in the same way as
  150. an extra package: Between the unpacking of the important package A and his configuration can then
  151. be many other unpack or configuration calls, e.g. for package B which has no relation to A, but
  152. causes the dpkg call to fail (e.g. because maintainer script of package B generates an error) which results
  153. in a system state in which package A is unpacked but unconfigured - each package depending on A is now no
  154. longer guaranteed to work as their dependency on A is not longer satisfied. The immediate configuration marker
  155. is also applied to all dependencies which can generate a problem if the dependencies e.g. form a circle
  156. as a dependency with the immediate flag is comparable with a Pre-Dependency. So in theory it is possible
  157. that APT encounters a situation in which it is unable to perform immediate configuration, errors out and
  158. refers to this option so the user can deactivate the immediate configuration temporarily to be able to perform
  159. an install/upgrade again. Note the use of the word "theory" here as this problem was only encountered by now
  160. in real world a few times in non-stable distribution versions and was caused by wrong dependencies of the package
  161. in question or by a system in an already broken state, so you should not blindly disable this option as
  162. the mentioned scenario above is not the only problem immediate configuration can help to prevent in the first place.
  163. Before a big operation like <literal>dist-upgrade</literal> is run with this option disabled it should be tried to
  164. explicitly <literal>install</literal> the package APT is unable to configure immediately, but please make sure to
  165. report your problem also to your distribution and to the APT team with the buglink below so they can work on
  166. improving or correcting the upgrade process.</para></listitem>
  167. </varlistentry>
  168. <varlistentry><term>Force-LoopBreak</term>
  169. <listitem><para>Never Enable this option unless you -really- know what you are doing. It
  170. permits APT to temporarily remove an essential package to break a
  171. Conflicts/Conflicts or Conflicts/Pre-Depend loop between two essential
  172. packages. SUCH A LOOP SHOULD NEVER EXIST AND IS A GRAVE BUG. This option
  173. will work if the essential packages are not tar, gzip, libc, dpkg, bash or
  174. anything that those packages depend on.</para></listitem>
  175. </varlistentry>
  176. <varlistentry><term>Cache-Start, Cache-Grow and Cache-Limit</term>
  177. <listitem><para>APT uses since version 0.7.26 a resizable memory mapped cache file to store the 'available'
  178. information. <literal>Cache-Start</literal> acts as a hint to which size the Cache will grow
  179. and is therefore the amount of memory APT will request at startup. The default value is
  180. 20971520 bytes (~20 MB). Note that these amount of space need to be available for APT
  181. otherwise it will likely fail ungracefully, so for memory restricted devices these value should
  182. be lowered while on systems with a lot of configured sources this might be increased.
  183. <literal>Cache-Grow</literal> defines in byte with the default of 1048576 (~1 MB) how much
  184. the Cache size will be increased in the event the space defined by <literal>Cache-Start</literal>
  185. is not enough. These value will be applied again and again until either the cache is big
  186. enough to store all information or the size of the cache reaches the <literal>Cache-Limit</literal>.
  187. The default of <literal>Cache-Limit</literal> is 0 which stands for no limit.
  188. If <literal>Cache-Grow</literal> is set to 0 the automatic grow of the cache is disabled.
  189. </para></listitem>
  190. </varlistentry>
  191. <varlistentry><term>Build-Essential</term>
  192. <listitem><para>Defines which package(s) are considered essential build dependencies.</para></listitem>
  193. </varlistentry>
  194. <varlistentry><term>Get</term>
  195. <listitem><para>The Get subsection controls the &apt-get; tool, please see its
  196. documentation for more information about the options here.</para></listitem>
  197. </varlistentry>
  198. <varlistentry><term>Cache</term>
  199. <listitem><para>The Cache subsection controls the &apt-cache; tool, please see its
  200. documentation for more information about the options here.</para></listitem>
  201. </varlistentry>
  202. <varlistentry><term>CDROM</term>
  203. <listitem><para>The CDROM subsection controls the &apt-cdrom; tool, please see its
  204. documentation for more information about the options here.</para></listitem>
  205. </varlistentry>
  206. </variablelist>
  207. </refsect1>
  208. <refsect1><title>The Acquire Group</title>
  209. <para>The <literal>Acquire</literal> group of options controls the download of packages
  210. and the URI handlers.
  211. <variablelist>
  212. <varlistentry><term>Check-Valid-Until</term>
  213. <listitem><para>Security related option defaulting to true as an
  214. expiring validation for a Release file prevents longtime replay attacks
  215. and can e.g. also help users to identify no longer updated mirrors -
  216. but the feature depends on the correctness of the time on the user system.
  217. Archive maintainers are encouraged to create Release files with the
  218. <literal>Valid-Until</literal> header, but if they don't or a stricter value
  219. is volitional the following <literal>Max-ValidTime</literal> option can be used.
  220. </para></listitem>
  221. </varlistentry>
  222. <varlistentry><term>Max-ValidTime</term>
  223. <listitem><para>Seconds the Release file should be considered valid after
  224. it was created. The default is "for ever" (0) if the Release file of the
  225. archive doesn't include a <literal>Valid-Until</literal> header.
  226. If it does then this date is the default. The date from the Release file or
  227. the date specified by the creation time of the Release file
  228. (<literal>Date</literal> header) plus the seconds specified with this
  229. options are used to check if the validation of a file has expired by using
  230. the earlier date of the two. Archive specific settings can be made by
  231. appending the label of the archive to the option name.
  232. </para></listitem>
  233. </varlistentry>
  234. <varlistentry><term>PDiffs</term>
  235. <listitem><para>Try to download deltas called <literal>PDiffs</literal> for
  236. Packages or Sources files instead of downloading whole ones. True
  237. by default.</para>
  238. <para>Two sub-options to limit the use of PDiffs are also available:
  239. With <literal>FileLimit</literal> can be specified how many PDiff files
  240. are downloaded at most to patch a file. <literal>SizeLimit</literal>
  241. on the other hand is the maximum precentage of the size of all patches
  242. compared to the size of the targeted file. If one of these limits is
  243. exceeded the complete file is downloaded instead of the patches.
  244. </para></listitem>
  245. </varlistentry>
  246. <varlistentry><term>Queue-Mode</term>
  247. <listitem><para>Queuing mode; <literal>Queue-Mode</literal> can be one of <literal>host</literal> or
  248. <literal>access</literal> which determines how APT parallelizes outgoing
  249. connections. <literal>host</literal> means that one connection per target host
  250. will be opened, <literal>access</literal> means that one connection per URI type
  251. will be opened.</para></listitem>
  252. </varlistentry>
  253. <varlistentry><term>Retries</term>
  254. <listitem><para>Number of retries to perform. If this is non-zero APT will retry failed
  255. files the given number of times.</para></listitem>
  256. </varlistentry>
  257. <varlistentry><term>Source-Symlinks</term>
  258. <listitem><para>Use symlinks for source archives. If set to true then source archives will
  259. be symlinked when possible instead of copying. True is the default.</para></listitem>
  260. </varlistentry>
  261. <varlistentry><term>http</term>
  262. <listitem><para>HTTP URIs; http::Proxy is the default http proxy to use. It is in the
  263. standard form of <literal>http://[[user][:pass]@]host[:port]/</literal>. Per
  264. host proxies can also be specified by using the form
  265. <literal>http::Proxy::&lt;host&gt;</literal> with the special keyword <literal>DIRECT</literal>
  266. meaning to use no proxies. If no one of the above settings is specified,
  267. <envar>http_proxy</envar> environment variable
  268. will be used.</para>
  269. <para>Three settings are provided for cache control with HTTP/1.1 compliant
  270. proxy caches. <literal>No-Cache</literal> tells the proxy to not use its cached
  271. response under any circumstances, <literal>Max-Age</literal> is sent only for
  272. index files and tells the cache to refresh its object if it is older than
  273. the given number of seconds. Debian updates its index files daily so the
  274. default is 1 day. <literal>No-Store</literal> specifies that the cache should never
  275. store this request, it is only set for archive files. This may be useful
  276. to prevent polluting a proxy cache with very large .deb files. Note:
  277. Squid 2.0.2 does not support any of these options.</para>
  278. <para>The option <literal>timeout</literal> sets the timeout timer used by the method,
  279. this applies to all things including connection timeout and data timeout.</para>
  280. <para>One setting is provided to control the pipeline depth in cases where the
  281. remote server is not RFC conforming or buggy (such as Squid 2.0.2).
  282. <literal>Acquire::http::Pipeline-Depth</literal> can be a value from 0 to 5
  283. indicating how many outstanding requests APT should send. A value of
  284. zero MUST be specified if the remote host does not properly linger
  285. on TCP connections - otherwise data corruption will occur. Hosts which
  286. require this are in violation of RFC 2068.</para>
  287. <para>The used bandwidth can be limited with <literal>Acquire::http::Dl-Limit</literal>
  288. which accepts integer values in kilobyte. The default value is 0 which deactivates
  289. the limit and tries uses as much as possible of the bandwidth (Note that this option implicit
  290. deactivates the download from multiple servers at the same time.)</para>
  291. <para><literal>Acquire::http::User-Agent</literal> can be used to set a different
  292. User-Agent for the http download method as some proxies allow access for clients
  293. only if the client uses a known identifier.</para>
  294. </listitem>
  295. </varlistentry>
  296. <varlistentry><term>https</term>
  297. <listitem><para>HTTPS URIs. Cache-control, Timeout, AllowRedirect, Dl-Limit and
  298. proxy options are the same as for <literal>http</literal> method and will also
  299. default to the options from the <literal>http</literal> method if they are not
  300. explicitly set for https. <literal>Pipeline-Depth</literal> option is not
  301. supported yet.</para>
  302. <para><literal>CaInfo</literal> suboption specifies place of file that
  303. holds info about trusted certificates.
  304. <literal>&lt;host&gt;::CaInfo</literal> is corresponding per-host option.
  305. <literal>Verify-Peer</literal> boolean suboption determines whether verify
  306. server's host certificate against trusted certificates or not.
  307. <literal>&lt;host&gt;::Verify-Peer</literal> is corresponding per-host option.
  308. <literal>Verify-Host</literal> boolean suboption determines whether verify
  309. server's hostname or not.
  310. <literal>&lt;host&gt;::Verify-Host</literal> is corresponding per-host option.
  311. <literal>SslCert</literal> determines what certificate to use for client
  312. authentication. <literal>&lt;host&gt;::SslCert</literal> is corresponding per-host option.
  313. <literal>SslKey</literal> determines what private key to use for client
  314. authentication. <literal>&lt;host&gt;::SslKey</literal> is corresponding per-host option.
  315. <literal>SslForceVersion</literal> overrides default SSL version to use.
  316. Can contain 'TLSv1' or 'SSLv3' string.
  317. <literal>&lt;host&gt;::SslForceVersion</literal> is corresponding per-host option.
  318. </para></listitem></varlistentry>
  319. <varlistentry><term>ftp</term>
  320. <listitem><para>FTP URIs; ftp::Proxy is the default ftp proxy to use. It is in the
  321. standard form of <literal>ftp://[[user][:pass]@]host[:port]/</literal>. Per
  322. host proxies can also be specified by using the form
  323. <literal>ftp::Proxy::&lt;host&gt;</literal> with the special keyword <literal>DIRECT</literal>
  324. meaning to use no proxies. If no one of the above settings is specified,
  325. <envar>ftp_proxy</envar> environment variable
  326. will be used. To use a ftp
  327. proxy you will have to set the <literal>ftp::ProxyLogin</literal> script in the
  328. configuration file. This entry specifies the commands to send to tell
  329. the proxy server what to connect to. Please see
  330. &configureindex; for an example of
  331. how to do this. The substitution variables available are
  332. <literal>$(PROXY_USER)</literal> <literal>$(PROXY_PASS)</literal> <literal>$(SITE_USER)</literal>
  333. <literal>$(SITE_PASS)</literal> <literal>$(SITE)</literal> and <literal>$(SITE_PORT)</literal>
  334. Each is taken from it's respective URI component.</para>
  335. <para>The option <literal>timeout</literal> sets the timeout timer used by the method,
  336. this applies to all things including connection timeout and data timeout.</para>
  337. <para>Several settings are provided to control passive mode. Generally it is
  338. safe to leave passive mode on, it works in nearly every environment.
  339. However some situations require that passive mode be disabled and port
  340. mode ftp used instead. This can be done globally, for connections that
  341. go through a proxy or for a specific host (See the sample config file
  342. for examples).</para>
  343. <para>It is possible to proxy FTP over HTTP by setting the <envar>ftp_proxy</envar>
  344. environment variable to a http url - see the discussion of the http method
  345. above for syntax. You cannot set this in the configuration file and it is
  346. not recommended to use FTP over HTTP due to its low efficiency.</para>
  347. <para>The setting <literal>ForceExtended</literal> controls the use of RFC2428
  348. <literal>EPSV</literal> and <literal>EPRT</literal> commands. The default is false, which means
  349. these commands are only used if the control connection is IPv6. Setting this
  350. to true forces their use even on IPv4 connections. Note that most FTP servers
  351. do not support RFC2428.</para></listitem>
  352. </varlistentry>
  353. <varlistentry><term>cdrom</term>
  354. <listitem><para>CDROM URIs; the only setting for CDROM URIs is the mount point,
  355. <literal>cdrom::Mount</literal> which must be the mount point for the CDROM drive
  356. as specified in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>. It is possible to provide
  357. alternate mount and unmount commands if your mount point cannot be listed
  358. in the fstab (such as an SMB mount and old mount packages). The syntax
  359. is to put <literallayout>/cdrom/::Mount "foo";</literallayout> within
  360. the cdrom block. It is important to have the trailing slash. Unmount
  361. commands can be specified using UMount.</para></listitem>
  362. </varlistentry>
  363. <varlistentry><term>gpgv</term>
  364. <listitem><para>GPGV URIs; the only option for GPGV URIs is the option to pass additional parameters to gpgv.
  365. <literal>gpgv::Options</literal> Additional options passed to gpgv.
  366. </para></listitem>
  367. </varlistentry>
  368. <varlistentry><term>CompressionTypes</term>
  369. <listitem><para>List of compression types which are understood by the acquire methods.
  370. Files like <filename>Packages</filename> can be available in various compression formats.
  371. Per default the acquire methods can decompress <command>bzip2</command>, <command>lzma</command>
  372. and <command>gzip</command> compressed files, with this setting more formats can be added
  373. on the fly or the used method can be changed. The syntax for this is:
  374. <synopsis>Acquire::CompressionTypes::<replaceable>FileExtension</replaceable> "<replaceable>Methodname</replaceable>";</synopsis>
  375. </para><para>Also the <literal>Order</literal> subgroup can be used to define in which order
  376. the acquire system will try to download the compressed files. The acquire system will try the first
  377. and proceed with the next compression type in this list on error, so to prefer one over the other type
  378. simple add the preferred type at first - not already added default types will be added at run time
  379. to the end of the list, so e.g. <synopsis>Acquire::CompressionTypes::Order:: "gz";</synopsis> can
  380. be used to prefer <command>gzip</command> compressed files over <command>bzip2</command> and <command>lzma</command>.
  381. If <command>lzma</command> should be preferred over <command>gzip</command> and <command>bzip2</command> the
  382. configure setting should look like this <synopsis>Acquire::CompressionTypes::Order { "lzma"; "gz"; };</synopsis>
  383. It is not needed to add <literal>bz2</literal> explicit to the list as it will be added automatic.</para>
  384. <para>Note that at run time the <literal>Dir::Bin::<replaceable>Methodname</replaceable></literal> will
  385. be checked: If this setting exists the method will only be used if this file exists, e.g. for
  386. the bzip2 method (the inbuilt) setting is <literallayout>Dir::Bin::bzip2 "/bin/bzip2";</literallayout>
  387. Note also that list entries specified on the command line will be added at the end of the list
  388. specified in the configuration files, but before the default entries. To prefer a type in this case
  389. over the ones specified in in the configuration files you can set the option direct - not in list style.
  390. This will not override the defined list, it will only prefix the list with this type.</para>
  391. <para>While it is possible to add an empty compression type to the order list, but APT in its current
  392. version doesn't understand it correctly and will display many warnings about not downloaded files -
  393. these warnings are most of the time false negatives. Future versions will maybe include a way to
  394. really prefer uncompressed files to support the usage of local mirrors.</para></listitem>
  395. </varlistentry>
  396. <varlistentry><term>Languages</term>
  397. <listitem><para>The Languages subsection controls which <filename>Translation</filename> files are downloaded
  398. and in which order APT tries to display the Description-Translations. APT will try to display the first
  399. available Description in the Language which is listed at first. Languages can be defined with their
  400. short or long Languagecodes. Note that not all archives provide <filename>Translation</filename>
  401. files for every Language - especially the long Languagecodes are rare, so please
  402. inform you which ones are available before you set here impossible values.</para>
  403. <para>The default list includes "environment" and "en". "<literal>environment</literal>" has a special meaning here:
  404. It will be replaced at runtime with the languagecodes extracted from the <literal>LC_MESSAGES</literal> environment variable.
  405. It will also ensure that these codes are not included twice in the list. If <literal>LC_MESSAGES</literal>
  406. is set to "C" only the <filename>Translation-en</filename> file (if available) will be used.
  407. To force apt to use no Translation file use the setting <literal>Acquire::Languages=none</literal>. "<literal>none</literal>"
  408. is another special meaning code which will stop the search for a fitting <filename>Translation</filename> file.
  409. This can be used by the system administrator to let APT know that it should download also this files without
  410. actually use them if the environment doesn't specify this languages. So the following example configuration will
  411. result in the order "en, de" in an english and in "de, en" in a german localization. Note that "fr" is downloaded,
  412. but not used if APT is not used in a french localization, in such an environment the order would be "fr, de, en".
  413. <programlisting>Acquire::Languages { "environment"; "de"; "en"; "none"; "fr"; };</programlisting></para></listitem>
  414. </varlistentry>
  415. </variablelist>
  416. </para>
  417. </refsect1>
  418. <refsect1><title>Directories</title>
  419. <para>The <literal>Dir::State</literal> section has directories that pertain to local
  420. state information. <literal>lists</literal> is the directory to place downloaded
  421. package lists in and <literal>status</literal> is the name of the dpkg status file.
  422. <literal>preferences</literal> is the name of the APT preferences file.
  423. <literal>Dir::State</literal> contains the default directory to prefix on all sub
  424. items if they do not start with <filename>/</filename> or <filename>./</filename>.</para>
  425. <para><literal>Dir::Cache</literal> contains locations pertaining to local cache
  426. information, such as the two package caches <literal>srcpkgcache</literal> and
  427. <literal>pkgcache</literal> as well as the location to place downloaded archives,
  428. <literal>Dir::Cache::archives</literal>. Generation of caches can be turned off
  429. by setting their names to be blank. This will slow down startup but
  430. save disk space. It is probably preferred to turn off the pkgcache rather
  431. than the srcpkgcache. Like <literal>Dir::State</literal> the default
  432. directory is contained in <literal>Dir::Cache</literal></para>
  433. <para><literal>Dir::Etc</literal> contains the location of configuration files,
  434. <literal>sourcelist</literal> gives the location of the sourcelist and
  435. <literal>main</literal> is the default configuration file (setting has no effect,
  436. unless it is done from the config file specified by
  437. <envar>APT_CONFIG</envar>).</para>
  438. <para>The <literal>Dir::Parts</literal> setting reads in all the config fragments in
  439. lexical order from the directory specified. After this is done then the
  440. main config file is loaded.</para>
  441. <para>Binary programs are pointed to by <literal>Dir::Bin</literal>. <literal>Dir::Bin::Methods</literal>
  442. specifies the location of the method handlers and <literal>gzip</literal>,
  443. <literal>bzip2</literal>, <literal>lzma</literal>,
  444. <literal>dpkg</literal>, <literal>apt-get</literal> <literal>dpkg-source</literal>
  445. <literal>dpkg-buildpackage</literal> and <literal>apt-cache</literal> specify the location
  446. of the respective programs.</para>
  447. <para>
  448. The configuration item <literal>RootDir</literal> has a special
  449. meaning. If set, all paths in <literal>Dir::</literal> will be
  450. relative to <literal>RootDir</literal>, <emphasis>even paths that
  451. are specified absolutely</emphasis>. So, for instance, if
  452. <literal>RootDir</literal> is set to
  453. <filename>/tmp/staging</filename> and
  454. <literal>Dir::State::status</literal> is set to
  455. <filename>/var/lib/dpkg/status</filename>, then the status file
  456. will be looked up in
  457. <filename>/tmp/staging/var/lib/dpkg/status</filename>.
  458. </para>
  459. <para>
  460. The <literal>Ignore-Files-Silently</literal> list can be used to specify
  461. which files APT should silently ignore while parsing the files in the
  462. fragment directories. Per default a file which end with <literal>.disabled</literal>,
  463. <literal>~</literal>, <literal>.bak</literal> or <literal>.dpkg-[a-z]+</literal>
  464. is silently ignored. As seen in the last default value these patterns can use regular
  465. expression syntax.
  466. </para>
  467. </refsect1>
  468. <refsect1><title>APT in DSelect</title>
  469. <para>
  470. When APT is used as a &dselect; method several configuration directives
  471. control the default behaviour. These are in the <literal>DSelect</literal> section.</para>
  472. <variablelist>
  473. <varlistentry><term>Clean</term>
  474. <listitem><para>Cache Clean mode; this value may be one of always, prompt, auto,
  475. pre-auto and never. always and prompt will remove all packages from
  476. the cache after upgrading, prompt (the default) does so conditionally.
  477. auto removes only those packages which are no longer downloadable
  478. (replaced with a new version for instance). pre-auto performs this
  479. action before downloading new packages.</para></listitem>
  480. </varlistentry>
  481. <varlistentry><term>options</term>
  482. <listitem><para>The contents of this variable is passed to &apt-get; as command line
  483. options when it is run for the install phase.</para></listitem>
  484. </varlistentry>
  485. <varlistentry><term>Updateoptions</term>
  486. <listitem><para>The contents of this variable is passed to &apt-get; as command line
  487. options when it is run for the update phase.</para></listitem>
  488. </varlistentry>
  489. <varlistentry><term>PromptAfterUpdate</term>
  490. <listitem><para>If true the [U]pdate operation in &dselect; will always prompt to continue.
  491. The default is to prompt only on error.</para></listitem>
  492. </varlistentry>
  493. </variablelist>
  494. </refsect1>
  495. <refsect1><title>How APT calls dpkg</title>
  496. <para>Several configuration directives control how APT invokes &dpkg;. These are
  497. in the <literal>DPkg</literal> section.</para>
  498. <variablelist>
  499. <varlistentry><term>options</term>
  500. <listitem><para>This is a list of options to pass to dpkg. The options must be specified
  501. using the list notation and each list item is passed as a single argument
  502. to &dpkg;.</para></listitem>
  503. </varlistentry>
  504. <varlistentry><term>Pre-Invoke</term><term>Post-Invoke</term>
  505. <listitem><para>This is a list of shell commands to run before/after invoking &dpkg;.
  506. Like <literal>options</literal> this must be specified in list notation. The
  507. commands are invoked in order using <filename>/bin/sh</filename>, should any
  508. fail APT will abort.</para></listitem>
  509. </varlistentry>
  510. <varlistentry><term>Pre-Install-Pkgs</term>
  511. <listitem><para>This is a list of shell commands to run before invoking dpkg. Like
  512. <literal>options</literal> this must be specified in list notation. The commands
  513. are invoked in order using <filename>/bin/sh</filename>, should any fail APT
  514. will abort. APT will pass to the commands on standard input the
  515. filenames of all .deb files it is going to install, one per line.</para>
  516. <para>Version 2 of this protocol dumps more information, including the
  517. protocol version, the APT configuration space and the packages, files
  518. and versions being changed. Version 2 is enabled by setting
  519. <literal>DPkg::Tools::options::cmd::Version</literal> to 2. <literal>cmd</literal> is a
  520. command given to <literal>Pre-Install-Pkgs</literal>.</para></listitem>
  521. </varlistentry>
  522. <varlistentry><term>Run-Directory</term>
  523. <listitem><para>APT chdirs to this directory before invoking dpkg, the default is
  524. <filename>/</filename>.</para></listitem>
  525. </varlistentry>
  526. <varlistentry><term>Build-options</term>
  527. <listitem><para>These options are passed to &dpkg-buildpackage; when compiling packages,
  528. the default is to disable signing and produce all binaries.</para></listitem>
  529. </varlistentry>
  530. </variablelist>
  531. <refsect2><title>dpkg trigger usage (and related options)</title>
  532. <para>APT can call dpkg in a way so it can make aggressive use of triggers over
  533. multiply calls of dpkg. Without further options dpkg will use triggers only in between his
  534. own run. Activating these options can therefore decrease the time needed to perform the
  535. install / upgrade. Note that it is intended to activate these options per default in the
  536. future, but as it changes the way APT calling dpkg drastically it needs a lot more testing.
  537. <emphasis>These options are therefore currently experimental and should not be used in
  538. productive environments.</emphasis> Also it breaks the progress reporting so all frontends will
  539. currently stay around half (or more) of the time in the 100% state while it actually configures
  540. all packages.</para>
  541. <para>Note that it is not guaranteed that APT will support these options or that these options will
  542. not cause (big) trouble in the future. If you have understand the current risks and problems with
  543. these options, but are brave enough to help testing them create a new configuration file and test a
  544. combination of options. Please report any bugs, problems and improvements you encounter and make sure
  545. to note which options you have used in your reports. Asking dpkg for help could also be useful for
  546. debugging proposes, see e.g. <command>dpkg --audit</command>. A defensive option combination would be
  547. <literallayout>DPkg::NoTriggers "true";
  548. PackageManager::Configure "smart";
  549. DPkg::ConfigurePending "true";
  550. DPkg::TriggersPending "true";</literallayout></para>
  551. <variablelist>
  552. <varlistentry><term>DPkg::NoTriggers</term>
  553. <listitem><para>Add the no triggers flag to all dpkg calls (except the ConfigurePending call).
  554. See &dpkg; if you are interested in what this actually means. In short: dpkg will not run the
  555. triggers when this flag is present unless it is explicitly called to do so in an extra call.
  556. Note that this option exists (undocumented) also in older apt versions with a slightly different
  557. meaning: Previously these option only append --no-triggers to the configure calls to dpkg -
  558. now apt will add these flag also to the unpack and remove calls.</para></listitem>
  559. </varlistentry>
  560. <varlistentry><term>PackageManager::Configure</term>
  561. <listitem><para>Valid values are "<literal>all</literal>", "<literal>smart</literal>" and "<literal>no</literal>".
  562. "<literal>all</literal>" is the default value and causes APT to configure all packages explicit.
  563. The "<literal>smart</literal>" way is it to configure only packages which need to be configured before
  564. another package can be unpacked (Pre-Depends) and let the rest configure by dpkg with a call generated
  565. by the next option. "<literal>no</literal>" on the other hand will not configure anything and totally
  566. rely on dpkg for configuration (which will at the moment fail if a Pre-Depends is encountered).
  567. Setting this option to another than the all value will implicitly activate also the next option per
  568. default as otherwise the system could end in an unconfigured status which could be unbootable!
  569. </para></listitem>
  570. </varlistentry>
  571. <varlistentry><term>DPkg::ConfigurePending</term>
  572. <listitem><para>If this option is set apt will call <command>dpkg --configure --pending</command>
  573. to let dpkg handle all required configurations and triggers. This option is activated automatic
  574. per default if the previous option is not set to <literal>all</literal>, but deactivating could be useful
  575. if you want to run APT multiple times in a row - e.g. in an installer. In these sceneries you could
  576. deactivate this option in all but the last run.</para></listitem>
  577. </varlistentry>
  578. <varlistentry><term>DPkg::TriggersPending</term>
  579. <listitem><para>Useful for <literal>smart</literal> configuration as a package which has pending
  580. triggers is not considered as <literal>installed</literal> and dpkg treats them as <literal>unpacked</literal>
  581. currently which is a dealbreaker for Pre-Dependencies (see debbugs #526774). Note that this will
  582. process all triggers, not only the triggers needed to configure this package.</para></listitem>
  583. </varlistentry>
  584. <varlistentry><term>PackageManager::UnpackAll</term>
  585. <listitem><para>As the configuration can be deferred to be done at the end by dpkg it can be
  586. tried to order the unpack series only by critical needs, e.g. by Pre-Depends. Default is true
  587. and therefore the "old" method of ordering in various steps by everything. While both method
  588. were present in earlier APT versions the <literal>OrderCritical</literal> method was unused, so
  589. this method is very experimental and needs further improvements before becoming really useful.
  590. </para></listitem>
  591. </varlistentry>
  592. <varlistentry><term>OrderList::Score::Immediate</term>
  593. <listitem><para>Essential packages (and there dependencies) should be configured immediately
  594. after unpacking. It will be a good idea to do this quite early in the upgrade process as these
  595. these configure calls require currently also <literal>DPkg::TriggersPending</literal> which
  596. will run quite a few triggers (which maybe not needed). Essentials get per default a high score
  597. but the immediate flag is relatively low (a package which has a Pre-Depends is higher rated).
  598. These option and the others in the same group can be used to change the scoring. The following
  599. example shows the settings with there default values.
  600. <literallayout>OrderList::Score {
  601. Delete 500;
  602. Essential 200;
  603. Immediate 10;
  604. PreDepends 50;
  605. };</literallayout>
  606. </para></listitem>
  607. </varlistentry>
  608. </variablelist>
  609. </refsect2>
  610. </refsect1>
  611. <refsect1>
  612. <title>Periodic and Archives options</title>
  613. <para><literal>APT::Periodic</literal> and <literal>APT::Archives</literal>
  614. groups of options configure behavior of apt periodic updates, which is
  615. done by <literal>/etc/cron.daily/apt</literal> script. See header of
  616. this script for the brief documentation of these options.
  617. </para>
  618. </refsect1>
  619. <refsect1>
  620. <title>Debug options</title>
  621. <para>
  622. Enabling options in the <literal>Debug::</literal> section will
  623. cause debugging information to be sent to the standard error
  624. stream of the program utilizing the <literal>apt</literal>
  625. libraries, or enable special program modes that are primarily
  626. useful for debugging the behavior of <literal>apt</literal>.
  627. Most of these options are not interesting to a normal user, but a
  628. few may be:
  629. <itemizedlist>
  630. <listitem>
  631. <para>
  632. <literal>Debug::pkgProblemResolver</literal> enables output
  633. about the decisions made by
  634. <literal>dist-upgrade, upgrade, install, remove, purge</literal>.
  635. </para>
  636. </listitem>
  637. <listitem>
  638. <para>
  639. <literal>Debug::NoLocking</literal> disables all file
  640. locking. This can be used to run some operations (for
  641. instance, <literal>apt-get -s install</literal>) as a
  642. non-root user.
  643. </para>
  644. </listitem>
  645. <listitem>
  646. <para>
  647. <literal>Debug::pkgDPkgPM</literal> prints out the actual
  648. command line each time that <literal>apt</literal> invokes
  649. &dpkg;.
  650. </para>
  651. </listitem>
  652. <listitem>
  653. <para>
  654. <literal>Debug::IdentCdrom</literal> disables the inclusion
  655. of statfs data in CDROM IDs. <!-- TODO: provide a
  656. motivating example, except I haven't a clue why you'd want
  657. to do this. -->
  658. </para>
  659. </listitem>
  660. </itemizedlist>
  661. </para>
  662. <para>
  663. A full list of debugging options to apt follows.
  664. </para>
  665. <variablelist>
  666. <varlistentry>
  667. <term><literal>Debug::Acquire::cdrom</literal></term>
  668. <listitem>
  669. <para>
  670. Print information related to accessing
  671. <literal>cdrom://</literal> sources.
  672. </para>
  673. </listitem>
  674. </varlistentry>
  675. <varlistentry>
  676. <term><literal>Debug::Acquire::ftp</literal></term>
  677. <listitem>
  678. <para>
  679. Print information related to downloading packages using
  680. FTP.
  681. </para>
  682. </listitem>
  683. </varlistentry>
  684. <varlistentry>
  685. <term><literal>Debug::Acquire::http</literal></term>
  686. <listitem>
  687. <para>
  688. Print information related to downloading packages using
  689. HTTP.
  690. </para>
  691. </listitem>
  692. </varlistentry>
  693. <varlistentry>
  694. <term><literal>Debug::Acquire::https</literal></term>
  695. <listitem>
  696. <para>
  697. Print information related to downloading packages using
  698. HTTPS.
  699. </para>
  700. </listitem>
  701. </varlistentry>
  702. <varlistentry>
  703. <term><literal>Debug::Acquire::gpgv</literal></term>
  704. <listitem>
  705. <para>
  706. Print information related to verifying cryptographic
  707. signatures using <literal>gpg</literal>.
  708. </para>
  709. </listitem>
  710. </varlistentry>
  711. <varlistentry>
  712. <term><literal>Debug::aptcdrom</literal></term>
  713. <listitem>
  714. <para>
  715. Output information about the process of accessing
  716. collections of packages stored on CD-ROMs.
  717. </para>
  718. </listitem>
  719. </varlistentry>
  720. <varlistentry>
  721. <term><literal>Debug::BuildDeps</literal></term>
  722. <listitem>
  723. <para>
  724. Describes the process of resolving build-dependencies in
  725. &apt-get;.
  726. </para>
  727. </listitem>
  728. </varlistentry>
  729. <varlistentry>
  730. <term><literal>Debug::Hashes</literal></term>
  731. <listitem>
  732. <para>
  733. Output each cryptographic hash that is generated by the
  734. <literal>apt</literal> libraries.
  735. </para>
  736. </listitem>
  737. </varlistentry>
  738. <varlistentry>
  739. <term><literal>Debug::IdentCDROM</literal></term>
  740. <listitem>
  741. <para>
  742. Do not include information from <literal>statfs</literal>,
  743. namely the number of used and free blocks on the CD-ROM
  744. filesystem, when generating an ID for a CD-ROM.
  745. </para>
  746. </listitem>
  747. </varlistentry>
  748. <varlistentry>
  749. <term><literal>Debug::NoLocking</literal></term>
  750. <listitem>
  751. <para>
  752. Disable all file locking. For instance, this will allow
  753. two instances of <quote><literal>apt-get
  754. update</literal></quote> to run at the same time.
  755. </para>
  756. </listitem>
  757. </varlistentry>
  758. <varlistentry>
  759. <term><literal>Debug::pkgAcquire</literal></term>
  760. <listitem>
  761. <para>
  762. Log when items are added to or removed from the global
  763. download queue.
  764. </para>
  765. </listitem>
  766. </varlistentry>
  767. <varlistentry>
  768. <term><literal>Debug::pkgAcquire::Auth</literal></term>
  769. <listitem>
  770. <para>
  771. Output status messages and errors related to verifying
  772. checksums and cryptographic signatures of downloaded files.
  773. </para>
  774. </listitem>
  775. </varlistentry>
  776. <varlistentry>
  777. <term><literal>Debug::pkgAcquire::Diffs</literal></term>
  778. <listitem>
  779. <para>
  780. Output information about downloading and applying package
  781. index list diffs, and errors relating to package index list
  782. diffs.
  783. </para>
  784. </listitem>
  785. </varlistentry>
  786. <varlistentry>
  787. <term><literal>Debug::pkgAcquire::RRed</literal></term>
  788. <listitem>
  789. <para>
  790. Output information related to patching apt package lists
  791. when downloading index diffs instead of full indices.
  792. </para>
  793. </listitem>
  794. </varlistentry>
  795. <varlistentry>
  796. <term><literal>Debug::pkgAcquire::Worker</literal></term>
  797. <listitem>
  798. <para>
  799. Log all interactions with the sub-processes that actually
  800. perform downloads.
  801. </para>
  802. </listitem>
  803. </varlistentry>
  804. <varlistentry>
  805. <term><literal>Debug::pkgAutoRemove</literal></term>
  806. <listitem>
  807. <para>
  808. Log events related to the automatically-installed status of
  809. packages and to the removal of unused packages.
  810. </para>
  811. </listitem>
  812. </varlistentry>
  813. <varlistentry>
  814. <term><literal>Debug::pkgDepCache::AutoInstall</literal></term>
  815. <listitem>
  816. <para>
  817. Generate debug messages describing which packages are being
  818. automatically installed to resolve dependencies. This
  819. corresponds to the initial auto-install pass performed in,
  820. e.g., <literal>apt-get install</literal>, and not to the
  821. full <literal>apt</literal> dependency resolver; see
  822. <literal>Debug::pkgProblemResolver</literal> for that.
  823. </para>
  824. </listitem>
  825. </varlistentry>
  826. <varlistentry>
  827. <term><literal>Debug::pkgDepCache::Marker</literal></term>
  828. <listitem>
  829. <para>
  830. Generate debug messages describing which package is marked
  831. as keep/install/remove while the ProblemResolver does his work.
  832. Each addition or deletion may trigger additional actions;
  833. they are shown indented two additional space under the original entry.
  834. The format for each line is <literal>MarkKeep</literal>,
  835. <literal>MarkDelete</literal> or <literal>MarkInstall</literal> followed by
  836. <literal>package-name &lt;a.b.c -&gt; d.e.f | x.y.z&gt; (section)</literal>
  837. where <literal>a.b.c</literal> is the current version of the package,
  838. <literal>d.e.f</literal> is the version considered for installation and
  839. <literal>x.y.z</literal> is a newer version, but not considered for installation
  840. (because of a low pin score). The later two can be omitted if there is none or if
  841. it is the same version as the installed.
  842. <literal>section</literal> is the name of the section the package appears in.
  843. </para>
  844. </listitem>
  845. </varlistentry>
  846. <!-- Question: why doesn't this do anything? The code says it should. -->
  847. <varlistentry>
  848. <term><literal>Debug::pkgInitConfig</literal></term>
  849. <listitem>
  850. <para>
  851. Dump the default configuration to standard error on
  852. startup.
  853. </para>
  854. </listitem>
  855. </varlistentry>
  856. <varlistentry>
  857. <term><literal>Debug::pkgDPkgPM</literal></term>
  858. <listitem>
  859. <para>
  860. When invoking &dpkg;, output the precise command line with
  861. which it is being invoked, with arguments separated by a
  862. single space character.
  863. </para>
  864. </listitem>
  865. </varlistentry>
  866. <varlistentry>
  867. <term><literal>Debug::pkgDPkgProgressReporting</literal></term>
  868. <listitem>
  869. <para>
  870. Output all the data received from &dpkg; on the status file
  871. descriptor and any errors encountered while parsing it.
  872. </para>
  873. </listitem>
  874. </varlistentry>
  875. <varlistentry>
  876. <term><literal>Debug::pkgOrderList</literal></term>
  877. <listitem>
  878. <para>
  879. Generate a trace of the algorithm that decides the order in
  880. which <literal>apt</literal> should pass packages to
  881. &dpkg;.
  882. </para>
  883. </listitem>
  884. </varlistentry>
  885. <varlistentry>
  886. <term><literal>Debug::pkgPackageManager</literal></term>
  887. <listitem>
  888. <para>
  889. Output status messages tracing the steps performed when
  890. invoking &dpkg;.
  891. </para>
  892. </listitem>
  893. </varlistentry>
  894. <varlistentry>
  895. <term><literal>Debug::pkgPolicy</literal></term>
  896. <listitem>
  897. <para>
  898. Output the priority of each package list on startup.
  899. </para>
  900. </listitem>
  901. </varlistentry>
  902. <varlistentry>
  903. <term><literal>Debug::pkgProblemResolver</literal></term>
  904. <listitem>
  905. <para>
  906. Trace the execution of the dependency resolver (this
  907. applies only to what happens when a complex dependency
  908. problem is encountered).
  909. </para>
  910. </listitem>
  911. </varlistentry>
  912. <varlistentry>
  913. <term><literal>Debug::pkgProblemResolver::ShowScores</literal></term>
  914. <listitem>
  915. <para>
  916. Display a list of all installed packages with their calculated score
  917. used by the pkgProblemResolver. The description of the package
  918. is the same as described in <literal>Debug::pkgDepCache::Marker</literal>
  919. </para>
  920. </listitem>
  921. </varlistentry>
  922. <varlistentry>
  923. <term><literal>Debug::sourceList</literal></term>
  924. <listitem>
  925. <para>
  926. Print information about the vendors read from
  927. <filename>/etc/apt/vendors.list</filename>.
  928. </para>
  929. </listitem>
  930. </varlistentry>
  931. <!-- 2009/07/11 Currently used nowhere. The corresponding code
  932. is commented.
  933. <varlistentry>
  934. <term><literal>Debug::Vendor</literal></term>
  935. <listitem>
  936. <para>
  937. Print information about each vendor.
  938. </para>
  939. </listitem>
  940. </varlistentry>
  941. -->
  942. </variablelist>
  943. </refsect1>
  944. <refsect1><title>Examples</title>
  945. <para>&configureindex; is a
  946. configuration file showing example values for all possible
  947. options.</para>
  948. </refsect1>
  949. <refsect1><title>Files</title>
  950. <variablelist>
  951. &file-aptconf;
  952. </variablelist>
  953. </refsect1>
  954. <refsect1><title>See Also</title>
  955. <para>&apt-cache;, &apt-config;<!-- ? reading apt.conf -->, &apt-preferences;.</para>
  956. </refsect1>
  957. &manbugs;
  958. </refentry>