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  1. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" standalone="no"?>
  2. <!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
  3. "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
  4. <!ENTITY % aptent SYSTEM "apt.ent">
  5. %aptent;
  6. <!ENTITY % aptverbatiment SYSTEM "apt-verbatim.ent">
  7. %aptverbatiment;
  8. <!ENTITY % aptvendor SYSTEM "apt-vendor.ent">
  9. %aptvendor;
  10. ]>
  11. <refentry>
  12. <refentryinfo>
  13. &apt-author.jgunthorpe;
  14. &apt-author.team;
  15. &apt-email;
  16. &apt-product;
  17. <!-- The last update date -->
  18. <date>2014-01-18T00:00:00Z</date>
  19. </refentryinfo>
  20. <refmeta>
  21. <refentrytitle>sources.list</refentrytitle>
  22. <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
  23. <refmiscinfo class="manual">APT</refmiscinfo>
  24. </refmeta>
  25. <!-- Man page title -->
  26. <refnamediv>
  27. <refname>sources.list</refname>
  28. <refpurpose>List of configured APT data sources</refpurpose>
  29. </refnamediv>
  30. <refsect1><title>Description</title>
  31. <para>
  32. The source list <filename>/etc/apt/sources.list</filename> is designed to support
  33. any number of active sources and a variety of source media. The file lists one
  34. source per line, with the most preferred source listed first. The information available
  35. from the configured sources is acquired by <command>apt-get update</command>
  36. (or by an equivalent command from another APT front-end).
  37. </para>
  38. <para>
  39. Each line specifying a source starts with type (e.g. <literal>deb-src</literal>)
  40. followed by options and arguments for this type.
  41. Individual entries cannot be continued onto a following line. Empty lines
  42. are ignored, and a <literal>#</literal> character anywhere on a line marks
  43. the remainder of that line as a comment.
  44. </para>
  45. </refsect1>
  46. <refsect1><title>sources.list.d</title>
  47. <para>The <filename>/etc/apt/sources.list.d</filename> directory provides
  48. a way to add sources.list entries in separate files.
  49. The format is the same as for the regular <filename>sources.list</filename> file.
  50. File names need to end with
  51. <filename>.list</filename> and may only contain letters (a-z and A-Z),
  52. digits (0-9), underscore (_), hyphen (-) and period (.) characters.
  53. Otherwise APT will print a notice that it has ignored a file, unless that
  54. file matches a pattern in the <literal>Dir::Ignore-Files-Silently</literal>
  55. configuration list - in which case it will be silently ignored.</para>
  56. </refsect1>
  57. <refsect1><title>The deb and deb-src types</title>
  58. <para>The <literal>deb</literal> type references a typical two-level Debian
  59. archive, <filename>distribution/component</filename>. The
  60. <literal>distribution</literal> is generally an archive name like
  61. <literal>stable</literal> or <literal>testing</literal> or a codename like
  62. <literal>&stable-codename;</literal> or <literal>&testing-codename;</literal>
  63. while component is one of <literal>main</literal>, <literal>contrib</literal> or
  64. <literal>non-free</literal>. The
  65. <literal>deb-src</literal> type references a Debian distribution's source
  66. code in the same form as the <literal>deb</literal> type.
  67. A <literal>deb-src</literal> line is required to fetch source indexes.</para>
  68. <para>The format for a <filename>sources.list</filename> entry using the
  69. <literal>deb</literal> and <literal>deb-src</literal> types is:</para>
  70. <literallayout>deb [ options ] uri suite [component1] [component2] [...]</literallayout>
  71. <para>Alternatively a rfc822 style format is also supported:
  72. <literallayout>
  73. Type: deb
  74. URIs: http://example.com
  75. Suites: stable testing
  76. Sections: component1 component2
  77. Description: short
  78. long long long
  79. [option1]: [option1-value]
  80. Type: deb-src
  81. URIs: http://example.com
  82. Suites: stable
  83. Sections: component1 component2
  84. Enabled: no
  85. Description: short
  86. long long long
  87. [option1]: [option1-value]
  88. </literallayout>
  89. </para>
  90. <para>The URI for the <literal>deb</literal> type must specify the base of the
  91. Debian distribution, from which APT will find the information it needs.
  92. <literal>suite</literal> can specify an exact path, in which case the
  93. components must be omitted and <literal>suite</literal> must end with
  94. a slash (<literal>/</literal>). This is useful for the case when only a
  95. particular sub-section of the archive denoted by the URI is of interest.
  96. If <literal>suite</literal> does not specify an exact path, at least
  97. one <literal>component</literal> must be present.</para>
  98. <para><literal>suite</literal> may also contain a variable,
  99. <literal>$(ARCH)</literal>
  100. which expands to the Debian architecture (such as <literal>amd64</literal> or
  101. <literal>armel</literal>) used on the system. This permits architecture-independent
  102. <filename>sources.list</filename> files to be used. In general this is only
  103. of interest when specifying an exact path, <literal>APT</literal> will
  104. automatically generate a URI with the current architecture otherwise.</para>
  105. <para>In the traditional style sources.list format since only one
  106. distribution can be specified per line it may be necessary to have
  107. multiple lines for the same URI, if a subset of all available
  108. distributions or components at that location is desired. APT will
  109. sort the URI list after it has generated a complete set internally,
  110. and will collapse multiple references to the same Internet host,
  111. for instance, into a single connection, so that it does not
  112. inefficiently establish an FTP connection, close it, do something
  113. else, and then re-establish a connection to that same host. This
  114. feature is useful for accessing busy FTP sites with limits on the
  115. number of simultaneous anonymous users. APT also parallelizes
  116. connections to different hosts to more effectively deal with sites
  117. with low bandwidth.</para>
  118. <para><literal>options</literal> is always optional and needs to be surrounded by
  119. square brackets. It can consist of multiple settings in the form
  120. <literal><replaceable>setting</replaceable>=<replaceable>value</replaceable></literal>.
  121. Multiple settings are separated by spaces. The following settings are supported by APT
  122. (note however that unsupported settings will be ignored silently):
  123. <itemizedlist>
  124. <listitem><para><literal>arch=<replaceable>arch1</replaceable>,<replaceable>arch2</replaceable>,…</literal>
  125. can be used to specify for which architectures information should
  126. be downloaded. If this option is not set all architectures defined by the
  127. <literal>APT::Architectures</literal> option will be downloaded.</para></listitem>
  128. <listitem><para><literal>arch+=<replaceable>arch1</replaceable>,<replaceable>arch2</replaceable>,…</literal>
  129. and <literal>arch-=<replaceable>arch1</replaceable>,<replaceable>arch2</replaceable>,…</literal>
  130. which can be used to add/remove architectures from the set which will be downloaded.</para></listitem>
  131. <listitem><para><literal>trusted=yes</literal> can be set to indicate that packages
  132. from this source are always authenticated even if the <filename>Release</filename> file
  133. is not signed or the signature can't be checked. This disables parts of &apt-secure;
  134. and should therefore only be used in a local and trusted context. <literal>trusted=no</literal>
  135. is the opposite which handles even correctly authenticated sources as not authenticated.</para></listitem>
  136. </itemizedlist></para>
  137. <para>It is important to list sources in order of preference, with the most
  138. preferred source listed first. Typically this will result in sorting
  139. by speed from fastest to slowest (CD-ROM followed by hosts on a local
  140. network, followed by distant Internet hosts, for example).</para>
  141. <para>Some examples:</para>
  142. <literallayout>
  143. deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian &stable-codename; main contrib non-free
  144. deb http://security.debian.org/ &stable-codename;/updates main contrib non-free
  145. </literallayout>
  146. </refsect1>
  147. <refsect1><title>URI specification</title>
  148. <para>The currently recognized URI types are:
  149. <variablelist>
  150. <varlistentry><term><command>file</command></term>
  151. <listitem><para>
  152. The file scheme allows an arbitrary directory in the file system to be
  153. considered an archive. This is useful for NFS mounts and local mirrors or
  154. archives.</para></listitem>
  155. </varlistentry>
  156. <varlistentry><term><command>cdrom</command></term>
  157. <listitem><para>
  158. The cdrom scheme allows APT to use a local CD-ROM drive with media
  159. swapping. Use the &apt-cdrom; program to create cdrom entries in the
  160. source list.</para></listitem>
  161. </varlistentry>
  162. <varlistentry><term><command>http</command></term>
  163. <listitem><para>
  164. The http scheme specifies an HTTP server for the archive. If an environment
  165. variable <envar>http_proxy</envar> is set with the format
  166. http://server:port/, the proxy server specified in
  167. <envar>http_proxy</envar> will be used. Users of authenticated
  168. HTTP/1.1 proxies may use a string of the format
  169. http://user:pass@server:port/.
  170. Note that this is an insecure method of authentication.</para></listitem>
  171. </varlistentry>
  172. <varlistentry><term><command>ftp</command></term>
  173. <listitem><para>
  174. The ftp scheme specifies an FTP server for the archive. APT's FTP behavior
  175. is highly configurable; for more information see the
  176. &apt-conf; manual page. Please note that an FTP proxy can be specified
  177. by using the <envar>ftp_proxy</envar> environment variable. It is possible
  178. to specify an HTTP proxy (HTTP proxy servers often understand FTP URLs)
  179. using this environment variable and <emphasis>only</emphasis> this
  180. environment variable. Proxies using HTTP specified in
  181. the configuration file will be ignored.</para></listitem>
  182. </varlistentry>
  183. <varlistentry><term><command>copy</command></term>
  184. <listitem><para>
  185. The copy scheme is identical to the file scheme except that packages are
  186. copied into the cache directory instead of used directly at their location.
  187. This is useful for people using removable media to copy files around with APT.</para></listitem>
  188. </varlistentry>
  189. <varlistentry><term><command>rsh</command></term><term><command>ssh</command></term>
  190. <listitem><para>
  191. The rsh/ssh method invokes RSH/SSH to connect to a remote host and
  192. access the files as a given user. Prior configuration of rhosts or RSA keys
  193. is recommended. The standard <command>find</command> and <command>dd</command>
  194. commands are used to perform the file transfers from the remote host.
  195. </para></listitem>
  196. </varlistentry>
  197. <varlistentry><term>adding more recognizable URI types</term>
  198. <listitem><para>
  199. APT can be extended with more methods shipped in other optional packages, which should
  200. follow the naming scheme <package>apt-transport-<replaceable>method</replaceable></package>.
  201. For instance, the APT team also maintains the package <package>apt-transport-https</package>,
  202. which provides access methods for HTTPS URIs with features similar to the http method.
  203. Methods for using e.g. debtorrent are also available - see &apt-transport-debtorrent;.
  204. </para></listitem>
  205. </varlistentry>
  206. </variablelist>
  207. </para>
  208. </refsect1>
  209. <refsect1><title>Examples</title>
  210. <para>Uses the archive stored locally (or NFS mounted) at /home/jason/debian
  211. for stable/main, stable/contrib, and stable/non-free.</para>
  212. <literallayout>deb file:/home/jason/debian stable main contrib non-free</literallayout>
  213. <para>As above, except this uses the unstable (development) distribution.</para>
  214. <literallayout>deb file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free</literallayout>
  215. <para>Source line for the above</para>
  216. <literallayout>deb-src file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free</literallayout>
  217. <para>The first line gets package information for the architectures in <literal>APT::Architectures</literal>
  218. while the second always retrieves <literal>amd64</literal> and <literal>armel</literal>.</para>
  219. <literallayout>deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian &stable-codename; main
  220. deb [ arch=amd64,armel ] http://ftp.debian.org/debian &stable-codename; main</literallayout>
  221. <para>Uses HTTP to access the archive at archive.debian.org, and uses only
  222. the hamm/main area.</para>
  223. <literallayout>deb http://archive.debian.org/debian-archive hamm main</literallayout>
  224. <para>Uses FTP to access the archive at ftp.debian.org, under the debian
  225. directory, and uses only the &stable-codename;/contrib area.</para>
  226. <literallayout>deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian &stable-codename; contrib</literallayout>
  227. <para>Uses FTP to access the archive at ftp.debian.org, under the debian
  228. directory, and uses only the unstable/contrib area. If this line appears as
  229. well as the one in the previous example in <filename>sources.list</filename>
  230. a single FTP session will be used for both resource lines.</para>
  231. <literallayout>deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable contrib</literallayout>
  232. <para>Uses HTTP to access the archive at ftp.tlh.debian.org, under the
  233. universe directory, and uses only files found under
  234. <filename>unstable/binary-i386</filename> on i386 machines,
  235. <filename>unstable/binary-amd64</filename> on amd64, and so
  236. forth for other supported architectures. [Note this example only
  237. illustrates how to use the substitution variable; official debian
  238. archives are not structured like this]
  239. <literallayout>deb http://ftp.tlh.debian.org/universe unstable/binary-$(ARCH)/</literallayout>
  240. </para>
  241. </refsect1>
  242. <refsect1><title>See Also</title>
  243. <para>&apt-cache; &apt-conf;
  244. </para>
  245. </refsect1>
  246. &manbugs;
  247. </refentry>