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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" standalone="no"?>
<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
"" [
<!ENTITY % aptent SYSTEM "apt.ent">
<!ENTITY % aptverbatiment SYSTEM "apt-verbatim.ent">
<!ENTITY % aptvendor SYSTEM "apt-vendor.ent">
<!-- The last update date -->
<refmiscinfo class="manual">APT</refmiscinfo>
<!-- Man page title -->
<refpurpose>List of configured APT data sources</refpurpose>
The source list <filename>/etc/apt/sources.list</filename> is designed to support
any number of active sources and a variety of source media. The file lists one
source per line, with the most preferred source listed first. The information available
from the configured sources is acquired by <command>apt-get update</command>
(or by an equivalent command from another APT front-end).
Each line specifying a source starts with type (e.g. <literal>deb-src</literal>)
followed by options and arguments for this type.
Individual entries cannot be continued onto a following line. Empty lines
are ignored, and a <literal>#</literal> character anywhere on a line marks
the remainder of that line as a comment.
<para>The <filename>/etc/apt/sources.list.d</filename> directory provides
a way to add sources.list entries in separate files.
The format is the same as for the regular <filename>sources.list</filename> file.
File names need to end with
<filename>.list</filename> and may only contain letters (a-z and A-Z),
digits (0-9), underscore (_), hyphen (-) and period (.) characters.
Otherwise APT will print a notice that it has ignored a file, unless that
file matches a pattern in the <literal>Dir::Ignore-Files-Silently</literal>
configuration list - in which case it will be silently ignored.</para>
<refsect1><title>The deb and deb-src types</title>
<para>The <literal>deb</literal> type references a typical two-level Debian
archive, <filename>distribution/component</filename>. The
<literal>distribution</literal> is generally an archive name like
<literal>stable</literal> or <literal>testing</literal> or a codename like
<literal>&stable-codename;</literal> or <literal>&testing-codename;</literal>
while component is one of <literal>main</literal>, <literal>contrib</literal> or
<literal>non-free</literal>. The
<literal>deb-src</literal> type references a Debian distribution's source
code in the same form as the <literal>deb</literal> type.
A <literal>deb-src</literal> line is required to fetch source indexes.</para>
<para>The format for a <filename>sources.list</filename> entry using the
<literal>deb</literal> and <literal>deb-src</literal> types is:</para>
<literallayout>deb [ options ] uri suite [component1] [component2] [...]</literallayout>
<para>Alternatively a rfc822 style format is also supported:
Type: deb
Suite: stable
Section: component1 component2
[option1]: [option1-value]
Type: deb-src
Suite: stable
Section: component1 component2
[option1]: [option1-value]
<para>The URI for the <literal>deb</literal> type must specify the base of the
Debian distribution, from which APT will find the information it needs.
<literal>suite</literal> can specify an exact path, in which case the
components must be omitted and <literal>suite</literal> must end with
a slash (<literal>/</literal>). This is useful for the case when only a
particular sub-section of the archive denoted by the URI is of interest.
If <literal>suite</literal> does not specify an exact path, at least
one <literal>component</literal> must be present.</para>
<para><literal>suite</literal> may also contain a variable,
which expands to the Debian architecture (such as <literal>amd64</literal> or
<literal>armel</literal>) used on the system. This permits architecture-independent
<filename>sources.list</filename> files to be used. In general this is only
of interest when specifying an exact path, <literal>APT</literal> will
automatically generate a URI with the current architecture otherwise.</para>
<para>In the traditional style sources.list format since only one
distribution can be specified per line it may be necessary to have
multiple lines for the same URI, if a subset of all available
distributions or components at that location is desired. APT will
sort the URI list after it has generated a complete set internally,
and will collapse multiple references to the same Internet host,
for instance, into a single connection, so that it does not
inefficiently establish an FTP connection, close it, do something
else, and then re-establish a connection to that same host. This
feature is useful for accessing busy FTP sites with limits on the
number of simultaneous anonymous users. APT also parallelizes
connections to different hosts to more effectively deal with sites
with low bandwidth.</para>
<para><literal>options</literal> is always optional and needs to be surrounded by
square brackets. It can consist of multiple settings in the form
Multiple settings are separated by spaces. The following settings are supported by APT
(note however that unsupported settings will be ignored silently):
can be used to specify for which architectures information should
be downloaded. If this option is not set all architectures defined by the
<literal>APT::Architectures</literal> option will be downloaded.</para></listitem>
and <literal>arch-=<replaceable>arch1</replaceable>,<replaceable>arch2</replaceable>,…</literal>
which can be used to add/remove architectures from the set which will be downloaded.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><literal>trusted=yes</literal> can be set to indicate that packages
from this source are always authenticated even if the <filename>Release</filename> file
is not signed or the signature can't be checked. This disables parts of &apt-secure;
and should therefore only be used in a local and trusted context. <literal>trusted=no</literal>
is the opposite which handles even correctly authenticated sources as not authenticated.</para></listitem>
<para>It is important to list sources in order of preference, with the most
preferred source listed first. Typically this will result in sorting
by speed from fastest to slowest (CD-ROM followed by hosts on a local
network, followed by distant Internet hosts, for example).</para>
<para>Some examples:</para>
deb &stable-codename; main contrib non-free
deb &stable-codename;/updates main contrib non-free
<refsect1><title>URI specification</title>
<para>The currently recognized URI types are:
The file scheme allows an arbitrary directory in the file system to be
considered an archive. This is useful for NFS mounts and local mirrors or
The cdrom scheme allows APT to use a local CD-ROM drive with media
swapping. Use the &apt-cdrom; program to create cdrom entries in the
source list.</para></listitem>
The http scheme specifies an HTTP server for the archive. If an environment
variable <envar>http_proxy</envar> is set with the format
http://server:port/, the proxy server specified in
<envar>http_proxy</envar> will be used. Users of authenticated
HTTP/1.1 proxies may use a string of the format
Note that this is an insecure method of authentication.</para></listitem>
The ftp scheme specifies an FTP server for the archive. APT's FTP behavior
is highly configurable; for more information see the
&apt-conf; manual page. Please note that an FTP proxy can be specified
by using the <envar>ftp_proxy</envar> environment variable. It is possible
to specify an HTTP proxy (HTTP proxy servers often understand FTP URLs)
using this environment variable and <emphasis>only</emphasis> this
environment variable. Proxies using HTTP specified in
the configuration file will be ignored.</para></listitem>
The copy scheme is identical to the file scheme except that packages are
copied into the cache directory instead of used directly at their location.
This is useful for people using removable media to copy files around with APT.</para></listitem>
The rsh/ssh method invokes RSH/SSH to connect to a remote host and
access the files as a given user. Prior configuration of rhosts or RSA keys
is recommended. The standard <command>find</command> and <command>dd</command>
commands are used to perform the file transfers from the remote host.
<varlistentry><term>adding more recognizable URI types</term>
APT can be extended with more methods shipped in other optional packages, which should
follow the naming scheme <package>apt-transport-<replaceable>method</replaceable></package>.
For instance, the APT team also maintains the package <package>apt-transport-https</package>,
which provides access methods for HTTPS URIs with features similar to the http method.
Methods for using e.g. debtorrent are also available - see &apt-transport-debtorrent;.
<para>Uses the archive stored locally (or NFS mounted) at /home/jason/debian
for stable/main, stable/contrib, and stable/non-free.</para>
<literallayout>deb file:/home/jason/debian stable main contrib non-free</literallayout>
<para>As above, except this uses the unstable (development) distribution.</para>
<literallayout>deb file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free</literallayout>
<para>Source line for the above</para>
<literallayout>deb-src file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free</literallayout>
<para>The first line gets package information for the architectures in <literal>APT::Architectures</literal>
while the second always retrieves <literal>amd64</literal> and <literal>armel</literal>.</para>
<literallayout>deb &stable-codename; main
deb [ arch=amd64,armel ] &stable-codename; main</literallayout>
<para>Uses HTTP to access the archive at, and uses only
the hamm/main area.</para>
<literallayout>deb hamm main</literallayout>
<para>Uses FTP to access the archive at, under the debian
directory, and uses only the &stable-codename;/contrib area.</para>
<literallayout>deb &stable-codename; contrib</literallayout>
<para>Uses FTP to access the archive at, under the debian
directory, and uses only the unstable/contrib area. If this line appears as
well as the one in the previous example in <filename>sources.list</filename>
a single FTP session will be used for both resource lines.</para>
<literallayout>deb unstable contrib</literallayout>
<para>Uses HTTP to access the archive at, under the
universe directory, and uses only files found under
<filename>unstable/binary-i386</filename> on i386 machines,
<filename>unstable/binary-amd64</filename> on amd64, and so
forth for other supported architectures. [Note this example only
illustrates how to use the substitution variable; official debian
archives are not structured like this]
<literallayout>deb unstable/binary-$(ARCH)/</literallayout>
<refsect1><title>See Also</title>
<para>&apt-cache; &apt-conf;