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Daniele Medri 59a0d2da3e po: update Italian translation 8 years ago
catalog catalog,po: update Polish translation 8 years ago
docs build-sys: fix distcheck 8 years ago
factory/etc factory: remove broken pam_limits 8 years ago
hwdb hwdb: fix ThinkPad X* Tablet special keys 8 years ago
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network network: fix 'LinkLocal' -> 'LinkLocalAddressing' in network files 8 years ago
po po: update Italian translation 8 years ago
rules rules: simplify mmc RPMB handling 8 years ago
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src po: simplify one sentence 8 years ago
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system-preset preset: enable by default 8 years ago
sysusers.d build-sys: configure the list of system users, files and directories 8 years ago
test sysv-generator: fix wrong "Overwriting existing symlink" warnings 8 years ago
tmpfiles.d tmpfiles: Remove unnecessary blank line when configured with "--disable-resolved" 8 years ago
tools compile-unifont: Python 2 compatibility 8 years ago
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.gitignore fsckd daemon for inter-fsckd communication 8 years ago
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NEWS NEWS: typo fixes 8 years ago
README README: add pkg-config to required deps for autogen 8 years ago
TODO update TODO 8 years ago build-sys: support local ./configure arguments 8 years ago build-sys: fail if gnuefi files are not found 8 years ago


systemd System and Service Manager






#systemd on


Lennart Poettering
Kay Sievers
...and many others

LGPLv2.1+ for all code
- except src/shared/MurmurHash2.c which is Public Domain
- except src/shared/siphash24.c which is CC0 Public Domain
- except src/journal/lookup3.c which is Public Domain
- except src/udev/* which is (currently still) GPLv2, GPLv2+

Linux kernel >= 3.7
Linux kernel >= 3.8 for Smack support

Kernel Config Options:
CONFIG_CGROUPS (it is OK to disable all controllers)
CONFIG_FHANDLE (libudev, mount and bind mount handling)

udev will fail to work with the legacy sysfs layout:

Legacy hotplug slows down the system and confuses udev:

Userspace firmware loading is not supported and should
be disabled in the kernel:

Some udev rules and virtualization detection relies on it:

Support for some SCSI devices serial number retrieval, to
create additional symlinks in /dev/disk/ and /dev/tape:

Required for PrivateNetwork and PrivateDevices in service units:
Note that systemd-localed.service and other systemd units use
PrivateNetwork and PrivateDevices so this is effectively required.

Optional but strongly recommended:

Required for CPUShares in resource control unit settings

Required for CPUQuota in resource control unit settings

For systemd-bootchart, several proc debug interfaces are required:

For UEFI systems:

Note that kernel auditing is broken when used with systemd's
container code. When using systemd in conjunction with
containers, please make sure to either turn off auditing at
runtime using the kernel command line option "audit=0", or
turn it off at kernel compile time using:
If systemd is compiled with libseccomp support on
architectures which do not use socketcall() and where seccomp
is supported (this effectively means x86-64 and ARM, but
excludes 32-bit x86!), then nspawn will now install a
work-around seccomp filter that makes containers boot even
with audit being enabled. This works correctly only on kernels
3.14 and newer though. TL;DR: turn audit off, still.

glibc >= 2.14
libmount >= 2.20 (from util-linux)
libseccomp >= 1.0.0 (optional)
libblkid >= 2.24 (from util-linux) (optional)
libkmod >= 15 (optional)
PAM >= 1.1.2 (optional)
libcryptsetup (optional)
libaudit (optional)
libacl (optional)
libselinux (optional)
liblzma (optional)
liblz4 >= 119 (optional)
libgcrypt (optional)
libqrencode (optional)
libmicrohttpd (optional)
libpython (optional)
libidn (optional)
gobject-introspection > 1.40.0 (optional)
elfutils >= 158 (optional)
make, gcc, and similar tools

During runtime, you need the following additional

util-linux >= v2.25 required
dbus >= 1.4.0 (strictly speaking optional, but recommended)
dracut (optional)
PolicyKit (optional)

When building from git, you need the following additional

gtkdocize (optional)
python (optional)
python-lxml (optional, but required to build the indices)
sphinx (optional)

When systemd-hostnamed is used, it is strongly recommended to
install nss-myhostname to ensure that, in a world of
dynamically changing hostnames, the hostname stays resolvable
under all circumstances. In fact, systemd-hostnamed will warn
if nss-myhostname is not installed.

To build HTML documentation for python-systemd using sphinx,
please first install systemd (using 'make install'), and then
invoke sphinx-build with 'make sphinx-<target>', with <target>
being 'html' or 'latexpdf'. If using DESTDIR for installation,
pass the same DESTDIR to 'make sphinx-html' invocation.

Default udev rules use the following standard system group
names, which need to be resolvable by getgrnam() at any time,
even in the very early boot stages, where no other databases
and network are available:

audio, cdrom, dialout, disk, input, kmem, lp, tape, tty, video

During runtime, the journal daemon requires the
"systemd-journal" system group to exist. New journal files will
be readable by this group (but not writable), which may be used
to grant specific users read access. In addition, system
groups "wheel" and "adm" will be given read-only access to
journal files using systemd-tmpfiles.service.

The journal gateway daemon requires the
"systemd-journal-gateway" system user and group to
exist. During execution this network facing service will drop
privileges and assume this uid/gid for security reasons.

Similarly, the NTP daemon requires the "systemd-timesync" system
user and group to exist.

Similarly, the network management daemon requires the
"systemd-network" system user and group to exist.

Similarly, the name resolution daemon requires the
"systemd-resolve" system user and group to exist.

Similarly, the kdbus dbus1 proxy daemon requires the
"systemd-bus-proxy" system user and group to exist.

systemd ships with three NSS modules:

nss-myhostname resolves the local hostname to locally
configured IP addresses, as well as "localhost" to

nss-resolve enables DNS resolution via the systemd-resolved
DNS/LLMNR caching stub resolver "systemd-resolved".

nss-mymachines enables resolution of all local containers
registered with machined to their respective IP addresses.

To make use of these NSS modules, please add them to the
"hosts: " line in /etc/nsswitch.conf. The "resolve" module
should replace the glibc "dns" module in this file.

The three modules should be used in the following order:

hosts: files mymachines resolve myhostname

systemd will warn you during boot if /etc/mtab is not a
symlink to /proc/mounts. Please ensure that /etc/mtab is a
proper symlink.

systemd will warn you during boot if /usr is on a different
file system than /. While in systemd itself very little will
break if /usr is on a separate partition, many of its
dependencies very likely will break sooner or later in one
form or another. For example, udev rules tend to refer to
binaries in /usr, binaries that link to libraries in /usr or
binaries that refer to data files in /usr. Since these
breakages are not always directly visible, systemd will warn
about this, since this kind of file system setup is not really
supported anymore by the basic set of Linux OS components.

systemd requires that the /run mount point exists. systemd also
requires that /var/run is a a symlink to /run.

For more information on this issue consult

To run systemd under valgrind, compile with VALGRIND defined
(e.g. ./configure CPPFLAGS='... -DVALGRIND=1'). Otherwise,
false positives will be triggered by code which violates
some rules but is actually safe.

ENDOCODE <> offers professional
engineering and consulting services for systemd. Please
contact Chris Kühl <> for more information.