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Lennart Poettering a1948c7bfe escape: beef up new systemd-escape tool 9 years ago
catalog catalog: rename files to specify language in the filename 9 years ago
docs libudev: queue provide file descriptor to watch busy event queue 9 years ago
hwdb hwdb: update 9 years ago
m4 core: remove tcpwrap support 9 years ago
man networkd: add support for mode 9 years ago
network networkd: merge DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 config 9 years ago
po po: add German translation 9 years ago
rules rules: don't enable usb pm for Avocent devices 9 years ago
shell-completion coredump: coredumpctl is so useful now, make it a first-class citizen 9 years ago
src escape: beef up new systemd-escape tool 9 years ago
sysctl.d sysctl: default - add safe sysrq options 10 years ago
system-preset preset: ship a minimal preset file upstream 9 years ago
sysusers.d sysusers: split up default sysusers snippet 9 years ago
test tests: do not use systemctl status --failed 9 years ago
tmpfiles.d tmpfiles: explicitly set mode for /run/log 9 years ago
tools man: mention that x-systemd.device-timeout is only for fstab 9 years ago
units firstboot: get rid of firstboot generator again, introduce ConditionFirstBoot= instead 9 years ago
.dir-locals.el Keep emacs configuration in one configuration file. 12 years ago
.gitattributes git: indicate that tabs are never OK in the systemd tree 9 years ago
.gitignore escape: beef up new systemd-escape tool 9 years ago
.mailmap prepare NEWS 9 years ago
.travis.yml test: Make testing work on systems without or old systemd 10 years ago
.vimrc vimrc: disable -fdiagnostics-color output 9 years ago ycm: update flag blacklist 9 years ago
CODING_STYLE doc: use expanded forms for written style 9 years ago
DISTRO_PORTING man: wording and grammar updates 9 years ago
LICENSE.GPL2 relicense to LGPLv2.1 (with exceptions) 11 years ago
LICENSE.LGPL2.1 licence: remove references to old FSF address 10 years ago
LICENSE.MIT relicense to LGPLv2.1 (with exceptions) 11 years ago firstboot: get rid of firstboot generator again, introduce ConditionFirstBoot= instead 9 years ago add new systemd-escape tool 9 years ago
NEWS NEWS: prepare for release 9 years ago
README doc: grammatical corrections 9 years ago
TODO update TODO 9 years ago build-sys: no use for compat libs in the static analysis 9 years ago firstboot: add new component to query basic system settings on first boot, or when creating OS images offline 9 years ago


systemd System and Service Manager






#systemd on


Lennart Poettering
Kay Sievers
...and many others

LGPLv2.1+ for all code
- except sd-readahead.[ch] which is MIT
- except src/shared/MurmurHash2.c which is Public Domain
- except src/shared/siphash24.c which is CC0 Public Domain
- except src/journal/lookup3.c which is Public Domain
- except src/udev/* which is (currently still) GPLv2, GPLv2+

Linux kernel >= 3.0
Linux kernel >= 3.3 for loop device partition support features with nspawn
Linux kernel >= 3.8 for Smack support

Kernel Config Options:
CONFIG_CGROUPS (it is OK to disable all controllers)
CONFIG_FHANDLE (libudev, mount and bind mount handling)

Udev will fail to work with the legacy layout:

Legacy hotplug slows down the system and confuses udev:

Userspace firmware loading is deprecated, will go away, and
sometimes causes problems:

Some udev rules and virtualization detection relies on it:

Support for some SCSI devices serial number retrieval, to
create additional symlinks in /dev/disk/ and /dev/tape:

Required for PrivateNetwork in service units:

Optional but strongly recommended:

Required for CPUShares in resource control unit settings

For systemd-bootchart, several proc debug interfaces are required:

For UEFI systems:

Note that kernel auditing is broken when used with systemd's
container code. When using systemd in conjunction with
containers, please make sure to either turn off auditing at
runtime using the kernel command line option "audit=0", or
turn it off at kernel compile time using:
If systemd is compiled with libseccomp support on
architectures which do not use socketcall() and where seccomp
is supported (this effectively means x86-64 and ARM, but
excludes 32-bit x86!), then nspawn will now install a
work-around seccomp filter that makes containers boot even
with audit being enabled. This works correctly only on kernels
3.14 and newer though. TL;DR: turn audit off, still.

glibc >= 2.14
libseccomp >= 1.0.0 (optional)
libblkid >= 2.20 (from util-linux) (optional)
libkmod >= 15 (optional)
PAM >= 1.1.2 (optional)
libcryptsetup (optional)
libaudit (optional)
libacl (optional)
libselinux (optional)
liblzma (optional)
libgcrypt (optional)
libqrencode (optional)
libmicrohttpd (optional)
libpython (optional)
gobject-introspection > 1.40.0 (optional)
elfutils >= 158 (optional)
make, gcc, and similar tools

During runtime, you need the following additional

util-linux >= v2.19 (requires fsck -l, agetty -s),
v2.21 required for tests in test/
dbus >= 1.4.0 (strictly speaking optional, but recommended)
sulogin (from util-linux >= 2.22 or sysvinit-tools, optional but recommended,
required for tests in test/)
dracut (optional)
PolicyKit (optional)

When building from git, you need the following additional

gtkdocize (optional)
python (optional)
python-lxml (optional, but required to build the indices)
sphinx (optional)

When systemd-hostnamed is used, it is strongly recommended to
install nss-myhostname to ensure that, in a world of
dynamically changing hostnames, the hostname stays resolvable
under all circumstances. In fact, systemd-hostnamed will warn
if nss-myhostname is not installed.

To build HTML documentation for python-systemd using sphinx,
please first install systemd (using 'make install'), and then
invoke sphinx-build with 'make sphinx-<target>', with <target>
being 'html' or 'latexpdf'. If using DESTDIR for installation,
pass the same DESTDIR to 'make sphinx-html' invocation.

Default udev rules use the following standard system group
names, which need to be resolvable by getgrnam() at any time,
even in the very early boot stages, where no other databases
and network are available:

audio, cdrom, dialout, disk, input, kmem, lp, tape, tty, video

During runtime, the journal daemon requires the
"systemd-journal" system group to exist. New journal files will
be readable by this group (but not writable), which may be used
to grant specific users read access.

It is also recommended to grant read access to all journal
files to the system groups "wheel" and "adm" with a command
like the following in the post installation script of the

# setfacl -nm g:wheel:rx,d:g:wheel:rx,g:adm:rx,d:g:adm:rx /var/log/journal/

The journal gateway daemon requires the
"systemd-journal-gateway" system user and group to
exist. During execution this network facing service will drop
privileges and assume this uid/gid for security reasons.

Similarly, the NTP daemon requires the "systemd-timesync" system
user and group to exist.

Similarly, the network management daemon requires the
"systemd-network" system user and group to exist.

Similarly, the name resolution daemon requires the
"systemd-resolve" system user and group to exist.

Similarly, the kdbus dbus1 proxy daemon requires the
"systemd-bus-proxy" system user and group to exist.

systemd will warn you during boot if /etc/mtab is not a
symlink to /proc/mounts. Please ensure that /etc/mtab is a
proper symlink.

systemd will warn you during boot if /usr is on a different
file system than /. While in systemd itself very little will
break if /usr is on a separate partition, many of its
dependencies very likely will break sooner or later in one
form or another. For example, udev rules tend to refer to
binaries in /usr, binaries that link to libraries in /usr or
binaries that refer to data files in /usr. Since these
breakages are not always directly visible, systemd will warn
about this, since this kind of file system setup is not really
supported anymore by the basic set of Linux OS components.

systemd requires that the /run mount point exists. systemd also
requires that /var/run is a a symlink to /run.

For more information on this issue consult

To run systemd under valgrind, compile with VALGRIND defined
(e.g. ./configure CPPFLAGS='... -DVALGRIND=1'). Otherwise,
false positives will be triggered by code which violates
some rules but is actually safe.