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systemd System and Service Manager
* The gudev library has been extracted into a separate repository
available at:
It is now managed as part of the Gnome project. Distributions
are recommended to pass --disable-gudev to systemd and use
gudev from the Gnome project instead. gudev is still included
in systemd, for now. It will be removed soon, though. Please
also see the announcement-thread on systemd-devel:
* systemd now exposes a CPUUsageNSec= property for each
service unit on the bus, that contains the overall consumed
CPU time of a service (the sum of what each process of the
service consumed). This value is only available if
CPUAccounting= is turned on for a service, and is then shown
in the "systemctl status" output.
* Support for configuring alternative mappings of the old SysV
runlevels to systemd targets has been removed. They are now
hardcoded in a way that runlevels 2, 3, 4 all map to and 5 to (which
previously was already the default behaviour).
* The auto-mounter logic gained support for mount point
expiry, using a new TimeoutIdleSec= setting in .automount
units. (Also available as x-systemd.idle-timeout= in /etc/fstab).
* The EFI System Partition (ESP) as mounted to /boot by
systemd-efi-boot-generator will now be unmounted
automatically after 2 minutes of not being used. This should
minimize the risk of ESP corruptions.
* New /etc/fstab options x-systemd.requires= and
x-systemd.requires-mounts-for= are now supported to express
additional dependencies for mounts. This is useful for
journalling file systems that support external journal
devices or overlay file systems that require underlying file
systems to be mounted.
* systemd does not support direct live-upgrades (via systemctl
daemon-reexec) from versions older than v44 anymore. As no
distribution we are aware of shipped such old versions in a
stable release this should not be problematic.
* When systemd forks off a new per-connection service instance
it will now set the $REMOTE_ADDR environment variable to the
remote IP address, and $REMOTE_PORT environment variable to
the remote IP port. This behaviour is similar to the
corresponding environment variables defined by CGI.
* systemd-networkd gained support for uplink failure
detection. The BindCarrier= option allows binding interface
configuration dynamically to the link sense of other
interfaces. This is useful to achieve behaviour like in
network switches.
* systemd-networkd gained support for configuring the DHCP
client identifier to use when requesting leases.
* systemd-networkd now has a per-network UseNTP= option to
configure whether NTP server information acquired via DHCP
is passed on to services like systemd-timesyncd.
* systemd-networkd gained support for vti6 tunnels.
* Note that systemd-networkd manages the sysctl variable
/proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/conf/*/forwarding for each interface
it is configured for since v219. The variable controls IP
forwarding, and is a per-interface alternative to the global
/proc/sys/net/ipv[46]/ip_forward. This setting is
configurable in the IPForward= option, which defaults to
"no". This means if networkd is used for an interface it is
no longer sufficient to set the global sysctl option to turn
on IP forwarding! Instead, the .network file option
IPForward= needs to be turned on! Note that the
implementation of this behaviour was broken in v219 and has
been fixed in v220.
* Many bonding and vxlan options are now configurable in
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --property= setting to set unit
properties for the container scope. This is useful for
setting resource parameters (e.g "CPUShares=500") on
containers started from the command line.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --private-users= switch to make
use of user namespacing available on recent Linux kernels.
* systemd-nspawn may now be called as part of a shell pipeline
in which case the pipes used for stdin and stdout are passed
directly to the process invoked in the container, without
indirection via a pseudo tty.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new switch to control the UNIX
signal to use when killing the init process of the container
when shutting down.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --overlay= switch for mounting
overlay file systems into the container using the new kernel
overlayfs support.
* When a container image is imported via systemd-importd and
the host file system is not btrfs, a loopback block device
file is created in /var/lib/machines.raw with a btrfs file
system inside. It is then mounted to /var/lib/machines to
enable btrfs features for container management. The loopback
file and btrfs file system is grown as needed when container
images are imported via systemd-importd.
* systemd-machined/systemd-importd gained support for btrfs
quota, to enforce container disk space limits on disk. This
is exposed in "machinectl set-limit".
* systemd-importd now can import containers from local .tar,
.raw and .qcow2 images, and export them to .tar and .raw. It
can also import dkr v2 images now from the network (on top
of v1 as before).
* systemd-importd gained support for verifying downloaded
images with gpg2 (previously only gpg1 was supported).
* systemd-machined, systemd-logind, systemd: most bus calls
are now accessible to unprivileged processes via
PolicyKit. Also, systemd-logind will now allow users to kill
their own sessions without further privileges or
* systemd-shutdownd has been removed. This service was
previously responsible for implementing scheduled shutdowns
as exposed in /usr/bin/shutdown's time parameter. This
functionality has now been moved into systemd-logind and is
accessible via a bus interface.
* "systemctl reboot" gained a new switch --firmware-setup that
can be used to reboot into the EFI firmware setup, if that
is available. systemd-logind now exposes an API on the bus
to trigger such reboots, in case graphical desktop UIs want
to cover this functionality.
* "systemctl enable", "systemctl disable" and "systemctl mask"
now support a new "--now" switch. If specified the units
that are enabled will also be started, and the ones
disabled/masked also stopped.
* The Gummiboot EFI boot loader tool has been merged into
systemd, and renamed to "systemd-boot". The bootctl tool has been
updated to support systemd-boot.
* An EFI kernel stub has been added that may be used to create
kernel EFI binaries that contain not only the actual kernel,
but also an initrd, boot splash, command line and OS release
information. This combined binary can then be signed as a
single image, so that the firmware can verify it all in one
step. systemd-boot has special support for EFI binaries created
like this and can extract OS release information from them
and show them in the boot menu. This functionality is useful
to implement cryptographically verified boot schemes.
* Optional support has been added to systemd-fsck to pass
fsck's progress report to an AF_UNIX socket in the file
* udev will no longer create device symlinks for all block
devices by default. A blacklist for excluding special block
devices from this logic has been turned into a whitelist
that requires picking block devices explicitly that require
device symlinks.
* A new (currently still internal) API sd-device.h has been
added to libsystemd. This modernized API is supposed to
replace libudev eventually. In fact, already much of libudev
is now just a wrapper around sd-device.h.
* A new hwdb database for storing metadata about pointing
stick devices has been added.
* systemd-tmpfiles gained support for setting file attributes
similar to the "chattr" tool with new 'h' and 'H' lines.
* systemd-journald will no longer unconditionally set the
btrfs NOCOW flag on new journal files. This is instead done
with tmpfiles snippet using the new 'h' line type. This
allows easy disabling of this logic, by masking the
journal-nocow.conf tmpfiles file.
* systemd-journald will now translate audit message types to
human readable identifiers when writing them to the
journal. This should improve readability of audit messages.
* The LUKS logic gained support for the offset= and skip=
options in /etc/crypttab, as previously implemented by
* /usr/lib/os-release gained a new optional field VARIANT= for
distributions that support multiple variants (such as a
desktop edition, a server edition, ...)
Contributions from: Aaro Koskinen, Adam Goode, Alban Crequy,
Alberto Fanjul Alonso, Alexander Sverdlin, Alex Puchades, Alin
Rauta, Alison Chaiken, Andrew Jones, Arend van Spriel,
Benedikt Morbach, Benjamin Franzke, Benjamin Tissoires, Blaž
Tomažič, Chris Morgan, Chris Morin, Colin Walters, Cristian
Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Drake, Daniele Medri, Daniel
Mack, Daniel Mustieles, daurnimator, Davide Bettio, David
Herrmann, David Strauss, Didier Roche, Dimitri John Ledkov,
Eric Cook, Gavin Li, Goffredo Baroncelli, Hannes Reinecke,
Hans de Goede, Hans-Peter Deifel, Harald Hoyer, Iago López
Galeiras, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan
Pazdziora, Jan Synacek, Jasper St. Pierre, Jay Faulkner, John
Paul Adrian Glaubitz, Jonathon Gilbert, Karel Zak, Kay
Sievers, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lucas
De Marchi, Lukas Nykryn, Lukas Rusak, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz
Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel
Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Mathieu Chevrier, Matthew Garrett,
Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal
Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Mirco Tischler, Nir Soffer, Patrik
Flykt, Pavel Odvody, Peter Hutterer, Peter Lemenkov, Peter
Waller, Piotr Drąg, Raul Gutierrez S, Richard Maw, Ronny
Chevalier, Ross Burton, Sebastian Rasmussen, Sergey Ptashnick,
Seth Jennings, Shawn Landden, Simon Farnsworth, Stefan Junker,
Stephen Gallagher, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas
Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tobias Hunger, Tom
Gundersen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Will
Woods, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2015-05-??
* Introduce a new API "sd-hwdb.h" for querying the hardware
metadata database. With this minimal interface one can query
and enumerate the udev hwdb, decoupled from the old libudev
library. libudev's interface for this is now only a wrapper
around sd-hwdb. A new tool systemd-hwdb has been added to
interface with and update the database.
* When any of systemd's tools copies files (for example due to
tmpfiles' C lines) a btrfs reflink will attempted first,
before bytewise copying is done.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --ephemeral switch. When
specified a btrfs snapshot is taken of the container's root
directory, and immediately removed when the container
terminates again. Thus, a container can be started whose
changes never alter the container's root directory, and are
lost on container termination. This switch can also be used
for starting a container off the root file system of the
host without affecting the host OS. This switch is only
available on btrfs file systems.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --template= switch. It takes the
path to a container tree to use as template for the tree
specified via --directory=, should that directory be
missing. This allows instantiating containers dynamically,
on first run. This switch is only available on btrfs file
* When a .mount unit refers to a mount point on which multiple
mounts are stacked, and the .mount unit is stopped all of
the stacked mount points will now be unmounted until no
mount point remains.
* systemd now has an explicit notion of supported and
unsupported unit types. Jobs enqueued for unsupported unit
types will now fail with an "unsupported" error code. More
specifically .swap, .automount and .device units are not
supported in containers, .busname units are not supported on
non-kdbus systems. .swap and .automount are also not
supported if their respective kernel compile time options
are disabled.
* machinectl gained support for two new "copy-from" and
"copy-to" commands for copying files from a running
container to the host or vice versa.
* machinectl gained support for a new "bind" command to bind
mount host directories into local containers. This is
currently only supported for nspawn containers.
* networkd gained support for configuring bridge forwarding
database entries (fdb) from .network files.
* A new tiny daemon "systemd-importd" has been added that can
download container images in tar, raw, qcow2 or dkr formats,
and make them available locally in /var/lib/machines, so
that they can run as nspawn containers. The daemon can GPG
verify the downloads (not supported for dkr, since it has no
provisions for verifying downloads). It will transparently
decompress bz2, xz, gzip compressed downloads if necessary,
and restore sparse files on disk. The daemon uses privilege
separation to ensure the actual download logic runs with
fewer privileges than the deamon itself. machinectl has
gained new commands "pull-tar", "pull-raw" and "pull-dkr" to
make the functionality of importd available to the
user. With this in place the Fedora and Ubuntu "Cloud"
images can be downloaded and booted as containers unmodified
(the Fedora images lack the appropriate GPG signature files
currently, so they cannot be verified, but this will change
soon, hopefully). Note that downloading images is currently
only fully supported on btrfs.
* machinectl is now able to list container images found in
/var/lib/machines, along with some metadata about sizes of
disk and similar. If the directory is located on btrfs and
quota is enabled, this includes quota display. A new command
"image-status" has been added that shows additional
information about images.
* machinectl is now able to clone container images
efficiently, if the underlying file system (btrfs) supports
it, with the new "machinectl list-images" command. It also
gained commands for renaming and removing images, as well as
marking them read-only or read-write (supported also on
legacy file systems).
* networkd gained support for collecting LLDP network
announcements, from hardware that supports this. This is
shown in networkctl output.
* systemd-run gained support for a new -t (--pty) switch for
invoking a binary on a pty whose input and output is
connected to the invoking terminal. This allows executing
processes as system services while interactively
communicating with them via the terminal. Most interestingly
this is supported across container boundaries. Invoking
"systemd-run -t /bin/bash" is an alternative to running a
full login session, the difference being that the former
will not register a session, nor go through the PAM session
* tmpfiles gained support for a new "v" line type for creating
btrfs subvolumes. If the underlying file system is a legacy
file system, this automatically degrades to creating a
normal directory. Among others /var/lib/machines is now
created like this at boot, should it be missing.
* The directory /var/lib/containers/ has been deprecated and
been replaced by /var/lib/machines. The term "machines" has
been used in the systemd context as generic term for both
VMs and containers, and hence appears more appropriate for
this, as the directory can also contain raw images bootable
via qemu/kvm.
* systemd-nspawn when invoked with -M but without --directory=
or --image= is now capable of searching for the container
root directory, subvolume or disk image automatically, in
/var/lib/machines. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated
to make use of this, thus allowing it to be used for raw
disk images, too.
* A new unit has been introduced that is
supposed to group all containers/VMs invoked as services on
the system. systemd-nspawn@.service has been updated to
integrate with that.
* machinectl gained a new "start" command, for invoking a
container as a service. "machinectl start foo" is mostly
equivalent to "systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foo.service",
but handles escaping in a nicer way.
* systemd-nspawn will now mount most of the cgroupfs tree
read-only into each container, with the exception of the
container's own subtree in the name=systemd hierarchy.
* journald now sets the special FS_NOCOW file flag for its
journal files. This should improve performance on btrfs, by
avoiding heavy fragmentation when journald's write-pattern
is used on COW file systems. It degrades btrfs' data
integrity guarantees for the files to the same levels as for
ext3/ext4 however. This should be OK though as journald does
its own data integrity checks and all its objects are
checksummed on disk. Also, journald should handle btrfs disk
full events a lot more gracefully now, by processing SIGBUS
errors, and not relying on fallocate() anymore.
* When journald detects that journal files it is writing to
have been deleted it will immediately start new journal
* systemd now provides a way to store file descriptors
per-service in PID 1.This is useful for daemons to ensure
that fds they require are not lost during a daemon
restart. The fds are passed to the deamon on the next
invocation in the same way socket activation fds are
passed. This is now used by journald to ensure that the
various sockets connected to all the system's stdout/stderr
are not lost when journald is restarted. File descriptors
may be stored in PID 1 via the sd_pid_notify_with_fds() API,
an extension to sd_notify(). Note that a limit is enforced
on the number of fds a service can store in PID 1, and it
defaults to 0, so that no fds may be stored, unless this is
explicitly turned on.
* The default TERM variable to use for units connected to a
terminal, when no other value is explicitly is set is now
vt220 rather than vt102. This should be fairly safe still,
but allows PgUp/PgDn work.
* The /etc/crypttab option header= as known from Debian is now
* "loginctl user-status" and "loginctl session-status" will
now show the last 10 lines of log messages of the
user/session following the status output. Similar,
"machinectl status" will show the last 10 log lines
associated with a virtual machine or container
service. (Note that this is usually not the log messages
done in the VM/container itself, but simply what the
container manager logs. For nspawn this includes all console
output however.)
* "loginctl session-status" without further argument will now
show the status of the session of the caller. Similar,
"lock-session", "unlock-session", "activate",
"enable-linger", "disable-linger" may now be called without
session/user parameter in which case they apply to the
caller's session/user.
* An X11 session scriptlet is now shipped that uploads
$DISPLAY and $XAUTHORITY into the environment of the systemd
--user daemon if a session begins. This should improve
compatibility with X11 enabled applications run as systemd
user services.
* Generators are now subject to masking via /etc and /run, the
same way as unit files.
* networkd .network files gained support for configuring
per-link IPv4/IPv6 packet forwarding as well as IPv4
masquerading. This is by default turned on for veth links to
containers, as registered by systemd-nspawn. This means that
nspawn containers run with --network-veth will now get
automatic routed access to the host's networks without any
further configuration or setup, as long as networkd runs on
the host.
* systemd-nspawn gained the --port= (-p) switch to expose TCP
or UDP posts of a container on the host. With this in place
it is possible to run containers with private veth links
(--network-veth), and have their functionality exposed on
the host as if their services were running directly on the
* systemd-nspawn's --network-veth switch now gained a short
version "-n", since with the changes above it is now truly
useful out-of-the-box. The systemd-nspawn@.service has been
updated to make use of it too by default.
* systemd-nspawn will now maintain a per-image R/W lock, to
ensure that the same image is not started more than once
writable. (It's OK to run an image multiple times
simultaneously in read-only mode.)
* systemd-nspawn's --image= option is now capable of
dissecting and booting MBR and GPT disk images that contain
only a single active Linux partition. Previously it
supported only GPT disk images with proper GPT type
IDs. This allows running cloud images from major
distributions directly with systemd-nspawn, without
* In addition to collecting mouse dpi data in the udev
hardware database, there's now support for collecting angle
information for mouse scroll wheels. The database is
supposed to guarantee similar scrolling behavior on mice
that it knows about. There's also support for collecting
information about Touchpad types.
* udev's input_id built-in will now also collect touch screen
dimension data and attach it to probed devices.
* /etc/os-release gained support for a Distribution Privacy
Policy link field.
* networkd gained support for creating "ipvlan", "gretap",
"ip6gre", "ip6gretap" and "ip6tnl" network devices.
* systemd-tmpfiles gained support for "a" lines for setting
ACLs on files.
* systemd-nspawn will now mount /tmp in the container to
tmpfs, automatically.
* systemd now exposes the memory.usage_in_bytes cgroup
attribute and shows it for each service in the "systemctl
status" output, if available.
* When the user presses Ctrl-Alt-Del more than 7x within 2s an
immediate reboot is triggered. This useful if shutdown is
hung and is unable to complete, to expedite the
operation. Note that this kind of reboot will still unmount
all file systems, and hence should not result in fsck being
run on next reboot.
* A .device unit for an optical block device will now be
considered active only when a medium is in the drive. Also,
mount units are now bound to their backing devices thus
triggering automatic unmounting when devices become
unavailable. With this in place systemd will now
automatically unmount left-over mounts when a CD-ROM is
ejected or an USB stick is yanked from the system.
* networkd-wait-online now has support for waiting for
specific interfaces only (with globbing), and for giving up
after a configurable timeout.
* networkd now exits when idle. It will be automatically
restarted as soon as interfaces show up, are removed or
change state. networkd will stay around as long as there is
at least one DHCP state machine or similar around, that keep
it non-idle.
* networkd may now configure IPv6 link-local addressing in
addition to IPv4 link-local addressing.
* The IPv6 "token" for use in SLAAC may now be configured for
each .network interface in networkd.
* Routes configured with networkd may now be assigned a scope
in .network files.
* networkd's [Match] sections now support globbing and lists
of multiple space-separated matches per item.
Contributions from: Alban Crequy, Alin Rauta, Andrey Chaser,
Bastien Nocera, Bruno Bottazzini, Carlos Garnacho, Carlos
Morata Castillo, Chris Atkinson, Chris J. Arges, Christian
Kirbach, Christian Seiler, Christoph Brill, Colin Guthrie,
Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack,
Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni, Erik Auerswald,
Filipe Brandenburger, Frank Theile, Gabor Kelemen, Gabriel de
Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Hui Wang, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan
Engelhardt, Jan Synacek, Jay Faulkner, Johannes Hölzl, Jonas
Ådahl, Jonathan Boulle, Josef Andersson, Kay Sievers, Ken
Werner, Lennart Poettering, Lucas De Marchi, Lukas Märdian,
Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
Manuel Mendez, Marcel Holtmann, Marc Schmitzer, Marko
Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Maxim Mikityanskiy, Michael Biebl,
Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Mindaugas
Baranauskas, Moez Bouhlel, Naveen Kumar, Patrik Flykt, Paul
Martin, Peter Hutterer, Peter Mattern, Philippe De Swert,
Piotr Drąg, Rafael Ferreira, Rami Rosen, Robert Milasan, Ronny
Chevalier, Sangjung Woo, Sebastien Bacher, Sergey Ptashnick,
Shawn Landden, Stéphane Graber, Susant Sahani, Sylvain
Plantefève, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tim JP, Tom
Gundersen, Topi Miettinen, Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar
Lindskog, Veres Lajos, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, Wieland
Hoffmann, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2015-02-16
* When querying unit file enablement status (for example via
"systemctl is-enabled"), a new state "indirect" is now known
which indicates that a unit might not be enabled itself, but
another unit listed in its Alias= setting might be.
* Similar to the various existing ConditionXYZ= settings for
units there are now matching AssertXYZ= settings. While
failing conditions cause a unit to be skipped, but its job
to succeed, failing assertions declared like this will cause
a unit start operation and its job to fail.
* hostnamed now knows a new chassis type "embedded".
* systemctl gained a new "edit" command. When used on a unit
file this allows extending unit files with .d/ drop-in
configuration snippets or editing the full file (after
copying it from /usr/lib to /etc). This will invoke the
user's editor (as configured with $EDITOR), and reload the
modified configuration after editing.
* "systemctl status" now shows the suggested enablement state
for a unit, as declared in the (usually vendor-supplied)
system preset files.
* nss-myhostname will now resolve the single-label host name
"gateway" to the locally configured default IP routing
gateways, ordered by their metrics. This assigns a stable
name to the used gateways, regardless which ones are
currently configured. Note that the name will only be
resolved after all other name sources (if nss-myhostname is
configured properly) and should hence not negatively impact
systems that use the single-label host name "gateway" in
other contexts.
* systemd-inhibit now allows filtering by mode when listing
* Scope and service units gained a new "Delegate" boolean
property, which when set allows processes running inside the
unit to further partition resources. This is primarily
useful for systemd user instances as well as container
* journald will now pick up audit messages directly from
the kernel, and log them like any other log message. The
audit fields are split up and fully indexed. This means that
journalctl in many ways is now a (nicer!) alternative to
ausearch, the traditional audit client. Note that this
implements only a minimal audit client, if you want the
special audit modes like reboot-on-log-overflow, please use
the traditional auditd instead, which can be used in
parallel to journald.
* The ConditionSecurity= unit file option now understands the
special string "audit" to check whether auditing is
* journalctl gained two new commands --vacuum-size= and
--vacuum-time= to delete old journal files until the
remaining ones take up no more the specified size on disk,
or are not older than the specified time.
* A new, native PPPoE library has been added to sd-network,
systemd's library of light-weight networking protocols. This
library will be used in a future version of networkd to
enable PPPoE communication without an external pppd daemon.
* The busctl tool now understands a new "capture" verb that
works similar to "monitor", but writes a packet capture
trace to STDOUT that can be redirected to a file which is
compatible with libcap's capture file format. This can then
be loaded in Wireshark and similar tools to inspect bus
* The busctl tool now understands a new "tree" verb that shows
the object trees of a specific service on the bus, or of all
* The busctl tool now understands a new "introspect" verb that
shows all interfaces and members of objects on the bus,
including their signature and values. This is particularly
useful to get more information about bus objects shown by
the new "busctl tree" command.
* The busctl tool now understands new verbs "call",
"set-property" and "get-property" for invoking bus method
calls, setting and getting bus object properties in a
friendly way.
* busctl gained a new --augment-creds= argument that controls
whether the tool shall augment credential information it
gets from the bus with data from /proc, in a possibly
race-ful way.
* nspawn's --link-journal= switch gained two new values
"try-guest" and "try-host" that work like "guest" and
"host", but do not fail if the host has no persistent
journalling enabled. -j is now equivalent to
* macvlan network devices created by nspawn will now have
stable MAC addresses.
* A new SmackProcessLabel= unit setting has been added, which
controls the SMACK security label processes forked off by
the respective unit shall use.
* If compiled with --enable-xkbcommon, systemd-localed will
verify x11 keymap settings by compiling the given keymap. It
will spew out warnings if the compilation fails. This
requires libxkbcommon to be installed.
* When a coredump is collected a larger number of metadata
fields is now collected and included in the journal records
created for it. More specifically control group membership,
environment variables, memory maps, working directory,
chroot directory, /proc/$PID/status, and a list of open file
descriptors is now stored in the log entry.
* The udev hwdb now contains DPI information for mice. For
details see:
* All systemd programs that read standalone configuration
files in /etc now also support a corresponding series of
.conf.d configuration directories in /etc/, /run/,
/usr/local/lib/, /usr/lib/, and (if configured with
--enable-split-usr) /lib/. In particular, the following
configuration files now have corresponding configuration
directories: system.conf user.conf, logind.conf,
journald.conf, sleep.conf, bootchart.conf, coredump.conf,
resolved.conf, timesyncd.conf, journal-remote.conf, and
journal-upload.conf. Note that distributions should use the
configuration directories in /usr/lib/; the directories in
/etc/ are reserved for the system administrator.
* systemd-rfkill will no longer take the rfkill device name
into account when storing rfkill state on disk, as the name
might be dynamically assigned and not stable. Instead, the
ID_PATH udev variable combined with the rfkill type (wlan,
bluetooth, ...) is used.
* A new service systemd-machine-id-commit.service has been
added. When used on systems where /etc is read-only during
boot, and /etc/machine-id is not initialized (but an empty
file), this service will copy the temporary machine ID
created as replacement into /etc after the system is fully
booted up. This is useful for systems that are freshly
installed with a non-initialized machine ID, but should get
a fixed machine ID for subsequent boots.
* networkd's .netdev files now provide a large set of
configuration parameters for VXLAN devices. Similar, the
bridge port cost parameter is now configurable in .network
files. There's also new support for configuring IP source
routing. networkd .link files gained support for a new
OriginalName= match that is useful to match against the
original interface name the kernel assigned. .network files
may include MTU= and MACAddress= fields for altering the MTU
and MAC address while being connected to a specific network
* The LUKS logic gained supported for configuring
UUID-specific key files. There's also new support for naming
LUKS device from the kernel command line, using the new argument.
* Timer units may now be transiently created via the bus API
(this was previously already available for scope and service
units). In addition it is now possible to create multiple
transient units at the same time with a single bus call. The
"systemd-run" tool has been updated to make use of this for
running commands on a specified time, in at(1)-style.
* tmpfiles gained support for "t" lines, for assigning
extended attributes to files. Among other uses this may be
used to assign SMACK labels to files.
Contributions from: Alin Rauta, Alison Chaiken, Andrej
Manduch, Bastien Nocera, Chris Atkinson, Chris Leech, Chris
Mayo, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters, Cristian Rodríguez,
Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dan Williams, Dan Winship, Dave
Reisner, David Herrmann, Didier Roche, Felipe Sateler, Gavin
Li, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Iago López Galeiras, Ivan
Shapovalov, Jakub Filak, Jan Janssen, Jan Synacek, Joe
Lawrence, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
Lukas Nykryn, Łukasz Stelmach, Maciej Wereski, Mantas
Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Maurizio Lombardi,
Michael Biebl, Michael Chapman, Michael Marineau, Michal
Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Olivier Brunel, Patrik Flykt, Peter
Hutterer, Przemyslaw Kedzierski, Rami Rosen, Ray Strode,
Richard Schütz, Richard W.M. Jones, Ronny Chevalier, Ross
Lagerwall, Sean Young, Stanisław Pitucha, Susant Sahani,
Thomas Haller, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen,
Torstein Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Vicente Olivert
Riera, WaLyong Cho, Wesley Dawson, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2014-12-10
* journalctl gained the new options -t/--identifier= to match
on the syslog identifier (aka "tag"), as well as --utc to
show log timestamps in the UTC timezone. journalctl now also
accepts -n/--lines=all to disable line capping in a pager.
* journalctl gained a new switch, --flush, that synchronously
flushes logs from /run/log/journal to /var/log/journal if
persistent storage is enabled. systemd-journal-flush.service
now waits until the operation is complete.
* Services can notify the manager before they start a reload
(by sending RELOADING=1) or shutdown (by sending
STOPPING=1). This allows the manager to track and show the
internal state of daemons and closes a race condition when
the process is still running but has closed its D-Bus
* Services with Type=oneshot do not have to have any ExecStart
commands anymore.
* User units are now loaded also from
$XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/systemd/user/. This is similar to the
/run/systemd/user directory that was already previously
supported, but is under the control of the user.
* Job timeouts (i.e. time-outs on the time a job that is
queued stays in the run queue) can now optionally result in
immediate reboot or power-off actions (JobTimeoutAction= and
JobTimeoutRebootArgument=). This is useful on ".target"
units, to limit the maximum time a target remains
undispatched in the run queue, and to trigger an emergency
operation in such a case. This is now used by default to
turn off the system if boot-up (as defined by everything in hangs and does not complete for at least
15min. Also, if power-off or reboot hang for at least 30min
an immediate power-off/reboot operation is triggered. This
functionality is particularly useful to increase reliability
on embedded devices, but also on laptops which might
accidentally get powered on when carried in a backpack and
whose boot stays stuck in a hard disk encryption passphrase
* systemd-logind can be configured to also handle lid switch
events even when the machine is docked or multiple displays
are attached (HandleLidSwitchDocked= option).
* A helper binary and a service have been added which can be
used to resume from hibernation in the initramfs. A
generator will parse the resume= option on the kernel
command line to trigger resume.
* A user console daemon systemd-consoled has been
added. Currently, it is a preview, and will so far open a
single terminal on each session of the user marked as
* Route metrics can be specified for DHCP routes added by
* The SELinux context of socket-activated services can be set
from the information provided by the networking stack
(SELinuxContextFromNet= option).
* Userspace firmware loading support has been removed and
the minimum supported kernel version is thus bumped to 3.7.
* Timeout for udev workers has been increased from 1 to 3
minutes, but a warning will be printed after 1 minute to
help diagnose kernel modules that take a long time to load.
* Udev rules can now remove tags on devices with TAG-="foobar".
* systemd's readahead implementation has been removed. In many
circumstances it didn't give expected benefits even for
rotational disk drives and was becoming less relevant in the
age of SSDs. As none of the developers has been using
rotating media anymore, and nobody stepped up to actively
maintain this component of systemd it has now been removed.
* Swap units can use Options= to specify discard options.
Discard options specified for swaps in /etc/fstab are now
* Docker containers are now detected as a separate type of
* The Password Agent protocol gained support for queries where
the user input is shown, useful e.g. for user names.
systemd-ask-password gained a new --echo option to turn that
* The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set:
net.core.default_qdisc = fq_codel
This selects Fair Queuing Controlled Delay as the default
queuing discipline for network interfaces. fq_codel helps
fight the network bufferbloat problem. It is believed to be
a good default with no tuning required for most workloads.
Downstream distributions may override this choice. On 10Gbit
servers that do not do forwarding, "fq" may perform better.
Systems without a good clocksource should use "pfifo_fast".
* If kdbus is enabled during build a new option BusPolicy= is
available for service units, that allows locking all service
processes into a stricter bus policy, in order to limit
access to various bus services, or even hide most of them
from the service's view entirely.
* networkctl will now show the .network and .link file
networkd has applied to a specific interface.
* sd-login gained a new API call sd_session_get_desktop() to
query which desktop environment has been selected for a
* UNIX utmp support is now compile-time optional to support
legacy-free systems.
* systemctl gained two new commands "add-wants" and
"add-requires" for pulling in units from specific targets
* If the word "rescue" is specified on the kernel command line
the system will now boot into rescue mode (aka, which was previously available only by
specifying "1" or "" on the kernel
command line. This new kernel command line option nicely
mirrors the already existing "emergency" kernel command line
* New kernel command line options mount.usr=, mount.usrflags=,
mount.usrfstype= have been added that match root=, rootflags=,
rootfstype= but allow mounting a specific file system to
* The $NOTIFY_SOCKET is now also passed to control processes of
services, not only the main process.
* This version reenables support for fsck's -l switch. This
means at least version v2.25 of util-linux is required for
operation, otherwise dead-locks on device nodes may
occur. Again: you need to update util-linux to at least
v2.25 when updating systemd to v217.
* The "multi-seat-x" tool has been removed from systemd, as
its functionality has been integrated into X servers 1.16,
and the tool is hence redundant. It is recommended to update
display managers invoking this tool to simply invoke X
directly from now on, again.
message flag has been added for all of systemd's PolicyKit
authenticated method calls has been added. In particular
this now allows optional interactive authorization via
PolicyKit for many of PID1's privileged operations such as
unit file enabling and disabling.
* "udevadm hwdb --update" learnt a new switch "--usr" for
placing the rebuilt hardware database in /usr instead of
/etc. When used only hardware database entries stored in
/usr will be used, and any user database entries in /etc are
ignored. This functionality is useful for vendors to ship a
pre-built database on systems where local configuration is
unnecessary or unlikely.
* Calendar time specifications in .timer units now also
understand the strings "semi-annually", "quarterly" and
"minutely" as shortcuts (in addition to the preexisting
"anually", "hourly", ...).
* systemd-tmpfiles will now correctly create files in /dev
at boot which are marked for creation only at boot. It is
recommended to always create static device nodes with 'c!'
and 'b!', so that they are created only at boot and not
overwritten at runtime.
* When the watchdog logic is used for a service (WatchdogSec=)
and the watchdog timeout is hit the service will now be
terminated with SIGABRT (instead of just SIGTERM), in order
to make sure a proper coredump and backtrace is
generated. This ensures that hanging services will result in
similar coredump/backtrace behaviour as services that hit a
segmentation fault.
Contributions from: Andreas Henriksson, Andrei Borzenkov,
Angus Gibson, Ansgar Burchardt, Ben Wolsieffer, Brandon L.
Black, Christian Hesse, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch,
Daniele Medri, Daniel Mack, Dan Williams, Dave Reisner, David
Herrmann, David Sommerseth, David Strauss, Emil Renner
Berthing, Eric Cook, Evangelos Foutras, Filipe Brandenburger,
Gustavo Sverzut Barbieri, Hans de Goede, Harald Hoyer, Hristo
Venev, Hugo Grostabussiat, Ivan Shapovalov, Jan Janssen, Jan
Synacek, Jonathan Liu, Juho Son, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Klaus
Purer, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz
Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann,
Marius Tessmann, Marko Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl,
Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michael Scherer, Michal
Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miroslav Lichvar, Patrik Flykt,
Philippe De Swert, Piotr Drąg, Rahul Sundaram, Richard
Weinberger, Robert Milasan, Ronny Chevalier, Ruben Kerkhof,
Santiago Vila, Sergey Ptashnick, Simon McVittie, Sjoerd
Simons, Stefan Brüns, Steven Allen, Steven Noonan, Susant
Sahani, Sylvain Plantefève, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
Timofey Titovets, Tobias Hunger, Tom Gundersen, Torstein
Husebø, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, WaLyong Cho, Zbigniew
-- Berlin, 2014-10-28
* timedated no longer reads NTP implementation unit names from
/usr/lib/systemd/ntp-units.d/*.list. Alternative NTP
implementations should add a
to their unit files to take over and replace systemd's NTP
default functionality.
* systemd-sysusers gained a new line type "r" for configuring
which UID/GID ranges to allocate system users/groups
from. Lines of type "u" may now add an additional column
that specifies the home directory for the system user to be
created. Also, systemd-sysusers may now optionally read user
information from STDIN instead of a file. This is useful for
invoking it from RPM preinst scriptlets that need to create
users before the first RPM file is installed since these
files might need to be owned by them. A new
%sysusers_create_inline RPM macro has been introduced to do
just that. systemd-sysusers now updates the shadow files as
well as the user/group databases, which should enhance
compatibility with certain tools like grpck.
* A number of bus APIs of PID 1 now optionally consult
PolicyKit to permit access for otherwise unprivileged
clients under certain conditions. Note that this currently
doesn't support interactive authentication yet, but this is
expected to be added eventually, too.
* /etc/machine-info now has new fields for configuring the
deployment environment of the machine, as well as the
location of the machine. hostnamectl has been updated with
new command to update these fields.
* systemd-timesyncd has been updated to automatically acquire
NTP server information from systemd-networkd, which might
have been discovered via DHCP.
* systemd-resolved now includes a caching DNS stub resolver
and a complete LLMNR name resolution implementation. A new
NSS module "nss-resolve" has been added which can be used
instead of glibc's own "nss-dns" to resolve hostnames via
systemd-resolved. Hostnames, addresses and arbitrary RRs may
be resolved via systemd-resolved D-Bus APIs. In contrast to
the glibc internal resolver systemd-resolved is aware of
multi-homed system, and keeps DNS server and caches separate
and per-interface. Queries are sent simultaneously on all
interfaces that have DNS servers configured, in order to
properly handle VPNs and local LANs which might resolve
separate sets of domain names. systemd-resolved may acquire
DNS server information from systemd-networkd automatically,
which in turn might have discovered them via DHCP. A tool
"systemd-resolve-host" has been added that may be used to
query the DNS logic in resolved. systemd-resolved implements
IDNA and automatically uses IDNA or UTF-8 encoding depending
on whether classic DNS or LLMNR is used as transport. In the
next releases we intend to add a DNSSEC and mDNS/DNS-SD
implementation to systemd-resolved.
* A new NSS module nss-mymachines has been added, that
automatically resolves the names of all local registered
containers to their respective IP addresses.
* A new client tool "networkctl" for systemd-networkd has been
added. It currently is entirely passive and will query
networking configuration from udev, rtnetlink and networkd,
and present it to the user in a very friendly
way. Eventually, we hope to extend it to become a full
control utility for networkd.
* .socket units gained a new DeferAcceptSec= setting that
controls the kernels' TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT sockopt for
TCP. Similar, support for controlling TCP keep-alive
settings has been added (KeepAliveTimeSec=,
KeepAliveIntervalSec=, KeepAliveProbes=). Also, support for
turning off Nagle's algorithm on TCP has been added
* logind learned a new session type "web", for use in projects
like Cockpit which register web clients as PAM sessions.
* timer units with at least one OnCalendar= setting will now
be started only after has been
reached. This way they will not elapse before the system
clock has been corrected by a local NTP client or
similar. This is particular useful on RTC-less embedded
machines, that come up with an invalid system clock.
* systemd-nspawn's --network-veth= switch should now result in
stable MAC addresses for both the outer and the inner side
of the link.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --volatile= switch for running
container instances with /etc or /var unpopulated.
* The kdbus client code has been updated to use the new Linux
3.17 memfd subsystem instead of the old kdbus-specific one.
* systemd-networkd's DHCP client and server now support
FORCERENEW. There are also new configuration options to
configure the vendor client identifier and broadcast mode
for DHCP.
* systemd will no longer inform the kernel about the current
timezone, as this is necessarily incorrect and racy as the
kernel has no understanding of DST and similar
concepts. This hence means FAT timestamps will be always
considered UTC, similar to what Android is already
doing. Also, when the RTC is configured to the local time
(rather than UTC) systemd will never synchronize back to it,
as this might confuse Windows at a later boot.
* systemd-analyze gained a new command "verify" for offline
validation of unit files.
* systemd-networkd gained support for a couple of additional
settings for bonding networking setups. Also, the metric for
statically configured routes may now be configured. For
network interfaces where this is appropriate the peer IP
address may now be configured.
* systemd-networkd's DHCP client will no longer request
broadcasting by default, as this tripped up some networks.
For hardware where broadcast is required the feature should
be switched back on using RequestBroadcast=yes.
* systemd-networkd will now set up IPv4LL addresses (when
enabled) even if DHCP is configured successfully.
* udev will now default to respect network device names given
by the kernel when the kernel indicates that these are
predictable. This behavior can be tweaked by changing
NamePolicy= in the relevant .link file.
* A new library systemd-terminal has been added that
implements full TTY stream parsing and rendering. This
library is supposed to be used later on for implementing a
full userspace VT subsystem, replacing the current kernel
* A new tool systemd-journal-upload has been added to push
journal data to a remote system running
* journald will no longer forward all local data to another
running syslog daemon. This change has been made because
rsyslog (which appears to be the most commonly used syslog
implementation these days) no longer makes use of this, and
instead pulls the data out of the journal on its own. Since
forwarding the messages to a non-existent syslog server is
more expensive than we assumed we have now turned this
off. If you run a syslog server that is not a recent rsyslog
version, you have to turn this option on again
(ForwardToSyslog= in journald.conf).
* journald now optionally supports the LZ4 compressor for
larger journal fields. This compressor should perform much
better than XZ which was the previous default.
* machinectl now shows the IP addresses of local containers,
if it knows them, plus the interface name of the container.
* A new tool "systemd-escape" has been added that makes it
easy to escape strings to build unit names and similar.
* sd_notify() messages may now include a new ERRNO= field
which is parsed and collected by systemd and shown among the
"systemctl status" output for a service.
* A new component "systemd-firstboot" has been added that
queries the most basic systemd information (timezone,
hostname, root password) interactively on first
boot. Alternatively it may also be used to provision these
things offline on OS images installed into directories.
* The default sysctl.d/ snippets will now set
This has the benefit of no flushing secondary IP addresses
when primary addresses are removed.
Contributions from: Ansgar Burchardt, Bastien Nocera, Colin
Walters, Dan Dedrick, Daniel Buch, Daniel Korostil, Daniel
Mack, Dan Williams, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Denis
Kenzior, Eelco Dolstra, Eric Cook, Hannes Reinecke, Harald
Hoyer, Hong Shick Pak, Hui Wang, Jean-André Santoni, Jóhann
B. Guðmundsson, Jon Severinsson, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Kevin
Wells, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas,
Marc-Antoine Perennou, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael
Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar,
Miguel Angel Ajo, Mike Gilbert, Olivier Brunel, Robert
Schiele, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie, Sjoerd Simons, Stef
Walter, Steven Noonan, Susant Sahani, Tanu Kaskinen, Thomas
Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Timofey Titovets,
Tobias Geerinckx-Rice, Tomasz Torcz, Tom Gundersen, Umut
Tezduyar Lindskog, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2014-08-19
* A new tool systemd-sysusers has been added. This tool
creates system users and groups in /etc/passwd and
/etc/group, based on static declarative system user/group
definitions in /usr/lib/sysusers.d/. This is useful to
enable factory resets and volatile systems that boot up with
an empty /etc directory, and thus need system users and
groups created during early boot. systemd now also ships
with two default sysusers.d/ files for the most basic
users and groups systemd and the core operating system
* A new tmpfiles snippet has been added that rebuilds the
essential files in /etc on boot, should they be missing.
* A directive for ensuring automatic clean-up of
/var/cache/man/ has been removed from the default
configuration. This line should now be shipped by the man
implementation. The necessary change has been made to the
man-db implementation. Note that you need to update your man
implementation to one that ships this line, otherwise no
automatic clean-up of /var/cache/man will take place.
* A new condition ConditionNeedsUpdate= has been added that
may conditionalize services to only run when /etc or /var
are "older" than the vendor operating system resources in
/usr. This is useful for reconstructing or updating /etc
after an offline update of /usr or a factory reset, on the
next reboot. Services that want to run once after such an
update or reset should use this condition and order
themselves before the new systemd-update-done.service, which
will mark the two directories as fully updated. A number of
service files have been added making use of this, to rebuild
the udev hardware database, the journald message catalog and
dynamic loader cache (ldconfig). The systemd-sysusers tool
described above also makes use of this now. With this in
place it is now possible to start up a minimal operating
system with /etc empty cleanly. For more information on the
concepts involved see this recent blog story:
* A new system group "input" has been introduced, and all
input device nodes get this group assigned. This is useful
for system-level software to get access to input devices. It
complements what is already done for "audio" and "video".
* systemd-networkd learnt minimal DHCPv4 server support in
addition to the existing DHCPv4 client support. It also
learnt DHCPv6 client and IPv6 Router Solicitation client
support. The DHCPv4 client gained support for static routes
passed in from the server. Note that the [DHCPv4] section
known in older systemd-networkd versions has been renamed to
[DHCP] and is now also used by the DHCPv6 client. Existing
.network files using settings of this section should be
updated, though compatibility is maintained. Optionally, the
client hostname may now be sent to the DHCP server.
* networkd gained support for vxlan virtual networks as well
as tun/tap and dummy devices.
* networkd gained support for automatic allocation of address
ranges for interfaces from a system-wide pool of
addresses. This is useful for dynamically managing a large
number of interfaces with a single network configuration
file. In particular this is useful to easily assign
appropriate IP addresses to the veth links of a large number
of nspawn instances.
* RPM macros for processing sysusers, sysctl and binfmt
drop-in snippets at package installation time have been
* The /etc/os-release file should now be placed in
/usr/lib/os-release. The old location is automatically
created as symlink. /usr/lib is the more appropriate
location of this file, since it shall actually describe the
vendor operating system shipped in /usr, and not the
configuration stored in /etc.
* .mount units gained a new boolean SloppyOptions= setting
that maps to mount(8)'s -s option which enables permissive
parsing of unknown mount options.
* tmpfiles learnt a new "L+" directive which creates a symlink
but (unlike "L") deletes a pre-existing file first, should
it already exist and not already be the correct
symlink. Similar, "b+", "c+" and "p+" directives have been
added as well, which create block and character devices, as
well as fifos in the filesystem, possibly removing any
pre-existing files of different types.
* For tmpfiles' "L", "L+", "C" and "C+" directives the final
'argument' field (which so far specified the source to
symlink/copy the files from) is now optional. If omitted the
same file os copied from /usr/share/factory/ suffixed by the
full destination path. This is useful for populating /etc
with essential files, by copying them from vendor defaults
shipped in /usr/share/factory/etc.
* A new command "systemctl preset-all" has been added that
applies the service preset settings to all installed unit
files. A new switch --preset-mode= has been added that
controls whether only enable or only disable operations
shall be executed.
* A new command "systemctl is-system-running" has been added
that allows checking the overall state of the system, for
example whether it is fully up and running.
* When the system boots up with an empty /etc, the equivalent
to "systemctl preset-all" is executed during early boot, to
make sure all default services are enabled after a factory
* systemd now contains a minimal preset file that enables the
most basic services systemd ships by default.
* Unit files' [Install] section gained a new DefaultInstance=
field for defining the default instance to create if a
template unit is enabled with no instance specified.
* A new passive target has been added
that may be used by services that need to make they run and
finish before the first LUKS cryptographic device is set up.
* The /dev/loop-control and /dev/btrfs-control device nodes
are now owned by the "disk" group by default, opening up
access to this group.
* systemd-coredump will now automatically generate a
stack trace of all core dumps taking place on the system,
based on elfutils' libdw library. This stack trace is logged
to the journal.
* systemd-coredump may now optionally store coredumps directly
on disk (in /var/lib/systemd/coredump, possibly compressed),
instead of storing them unconditionally in the journal. This
mode is the new default. A new configuration file
/etc/systemd/coredump.conf has been added to configure this
and other parameters of systemd-coredump.
* coredumpctl gained a new "info" verb to show details about a
specific coredump. A new switch "-1" has also been added
that makes sure to only show information about the most
recent entry instead of all entries. Also, as the tool is
generally useful now the "systemd-" prefix of the binary
name has been removed. Distributions that want to maintain
compatibility with the old name should add a symlink from
the old name to the new name.
* journald's SplitMode= now defaults to "uid". This makes sure
that unprivileged users can access their own coredumps with
coredumpctl without restrictions.
* New kernel command line options "systemd.wants=" (for
pulling an additional unit during boot), "systemd.mask="
(for masking a specific unit for the boot), and
"systemd.debug-shell" (for enabling the debug shell on tty9)
have been added. This is implemented in the new generator
* systemd-nspawn will now by default filter a couple of
syscalls for containers, among them those required for
kernel module loading, direct x86 IO port access, swap
management, and kexec. Most importantly though
open_by_handle_at() is now prohibited for containers,
closing a hole similar to a recently discussed vulnerability
in docker regarding access to files on file hierarchies the
container should normally not have access to. Note that for
nspawn we generally make no security claims anyway (and
this is explicitly documented in the man page), so this is
just a fix for one of the most obvious problems.
* A new man page file-hierarchy(7) has been added that
contains a minimized, modernized version of the file system
layout systemd expects, similar in style to the FHS
specification or hier(5). A new tool systemd-path(1) has
been added to query many of these paths for the local
machine and user.
* Automatic time-based clean-up of $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR is no
longer done. Since the directory now has a per-user size
limit, and is cleaned on logout this appears unnecessary,
in particular since this now brings the lifecycle of this
directory closer in line with how IPC objects are handled.
* systemd.pc now exports a number of additional directories,
including $libdir (which is useful to identify the library
path for the primary architecture of the system), and a
couple of drop-in directories.
* udev's predictable network interface names now use the dev_port
sysfs attribute, introduced in linux 3.15 instead of dev_id to
distinguish between ports of the same PCI function. dev_id should
only be used for ports using the same HW address, hence the need
for dev_port.
* machined has been updated to export the OS version of a
container (read from /etc/os-release and
/usr/lib/os-release) on the bus. This is now shown in
"machinectl status" for a machine.
* A new service setting RestartForceExitStatus= has been
added. If configured to a set of exit signals or process
return values, the service will be restarted when the main
daemon process exits with any of them, regardless of the
Restart= setting.
* systemctl's -H switch for connecting to remote systemd
machines has been extended so that it may be used to
directly connect to a specific container on the
host. "systemctl -H root@foobar:waldi" will now connect as
user "root" to host "foobar", and then proceed directly to
the container named "waldi". Note that currently you have to
authenticate as user "root" for this to work, as entering
containers is a privileged operation.
Contributions from: Andreas Henriksson, Benjamin Steinwender,
Carl Schaefer, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian King, Cristian
Rodríguez, Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Eugene
Yakubovich, Filipe Brandenburger, Frederic Crozat, Hristo
Venev, Jan Engelhardt, Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marc-Antoine
Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich,
Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Michal Sekletar, Patrik Flykt, Ronan Le
Martret, Ronny Chevalier, Ruediger Oertel, Steven Noonan,
Susant Sahani, Thadeu Lima de Souza Cascardo, Thomas Hindoe
Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tom Hirst, Umut Tezduyar
Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2014-07-03
* As an experimental feature, udev now tries to lock the
disk device node (flock(LOCK_SH|LOCK_NB)) while it
executes events for the disk or any of its partitions.
Applications like partitioning programs can lock the
disk device node (flock(LOCK_EX)) and claim temporary
device ownership that way; udev will entirely skip all event
handling for this disk and its partitions. If the disk
was opened for writing, the close will trigger a partition
table rescan in udev's "watch" facility, and if needed
synthesize "change" events for the disk and all its partitions.
This is now unconditionally enabled, and if it turns out to
cause major problems, we might turn it on only for specific
devices, or might need to disable it entirely. Device Mapper
devices are excluded from this logic.
* We temporarily dropped the "-l" switch for fsck invocations,
since they collide with the flock() logic above. util-linux
upstream has been changed already to avoid this conflict,
and we will readd "-l" as soon as util-linux with this
change has been released.
* The dependency on libattr has been removed. Since a long
time, the extended attribute calls have moved to glibc, and
libattr is thus unnecessary.
* Virtualization detection works without priviliges now. This
means the systemd-detect-virt binary no longer requires
CAP_SYS_PTRACE file capabilities, and our daemons can run
with fewer privileges.
* systemd-networkd now runs under its own "systemd-network"
CAP_NET_BROADCAST, CAP_NET_RAW capabilities though, but
loses the ability to write to files owned by root this way.
* Similar, systemd-resolved now runs under its own
"systemd-resolve" user with no capabilities remaining.
* Similar, systemd-bus-proxyd now runs under its own
"systemd-bus-proxy" user with only CAP_IPC_OWNER remaining.
* systemd-networkd gained support for setting up "veth"
virtual ethernet devices for container connectivity, as well
as GRE and VTI tunnels.
* systemd-networkd will no longer automatically attempt to
manually load kernel modules necessary for certain tunnel
transports. Instead, it is assumed the kernel loads them
automatically when required. This only works correctly on
very new kernels. On older kernels, please consider adding
the kernel modules to /etc/modules-load.d/ as a work-around.
* The resolv.conf file systemd-resolved generates has been
moved to /run/systemd/resolve/. If you have a symlink from
/etc/resolv.conf, it might be necessary to correct it.
* Two new service settings, ProtectHome= and ProtectSystem=,
have been added. When enabled, they will make the user data
(such as /home) inaccessible or read-only and the system
(such as /usr) read-only, for specific services. This allows
very light-weight per-service sandboxing to avoid
modifications of user data or system files from
services. These two new switches have been enabled for all
of systemd's long-running services, where appropriate.
* Socket units gained new SocketUser= and SocketGroup=
settings to set the owner user and group of AF_UNIX sockets
and FIFOs in the file system.
* Socket units gained a new RemoveOnStop= setting. If enabled,
all FIFOS and sockets in the file system will be removed
when the specific socket unit is stopped.
* Socket units gained a new Symlinks= setting. It takes a list
of symlinks to create to file system sockets or FIFOs
created by the specific Unix sockets. This is useful to
manage symlinks to socket nodes with the same life-cycle as
the socket itself.
* The /dev/log socket and /dev/initctl FIFO have been moved to
/run, and have been replaced by symlinks. This allows
connecting to these facilities even if PrivateDevices=yes is
used for a service (which makes /dev/log itself unavailable,
but /run is left). This also has the benefit of ensuring
that /dev only contains device nodes, directories and
symlinks, and nothing else.
* sd-daemon gained two new calls sd_pid_notify() and
sd_pid_notifyf(). They are similar to sd_notify() and
sd_notifyf(), but allow overriding of the source PID of
notification messages if permissions permit this. This is
useful to send notify messages on behalf of a different
process (for example, the parent process). The
systemd-notify tool has been updated to make use of this
when sending messages (so that notification messages now
originate from the shell script invoking systemd-notify and
not the systemd-notify process itself. This should minimize
a race where systemd fails to associate notification
messages to services when the originating process already
* A new "on-abnormal" setting for Restart= has been added. If
set, it will result in automatic restarts on all "abnormal"
reasons for a process to exit, which includes unclean
signals, core dumps, timeouts and watchdog timeouts, but
does not include clean and unclean exit codes or clean
signals. Restart=on-abnormal is an alternative for
Restart=on-failure for services that shall be able to
terminate and avoid restarts on certain errors, by
indicating so with an unclean exit code. Restart=on-failure
or Restart=on-abnormal is now the recommended setting for
all long-running services.
* If the InaccessibleDirectories= service setting points to a
mount point (or if there are any submounts contained within
it), it is now attempted to completely unmount it, to make
the file systems truly unavailable for the respective
* The ReadOnlyDirectories= service setting and
systemd-nspawn's --read-only parameter are now recursively
applied to all submounts, too.
* Mount units may now be created transiently via the bus APIs.
* The support for SysV and LSB init scripts has been removed
from the systemd daemon itself. Instead, it is now
implemented as a generator that creates native systemd units
from these scripts when needed. This enables us to remove a
substantial amount of legacy code from PID 1, following the
fact that many distributions only ship a very small number
of LSB/SysV init scripts nowadays.
* Privileged Xen (dom0) domains are not considered
virtualization anymore by the virtualization detection
logic. After all, they generally have unrestricted access to
the hardware and usually are used to manage the unprivileged
(domU) domains.
* systemd-tmpfiles gained a new "C" line type, for copying
files or entire directories.
* systemd-tmpfiles "m" lines are now fully equivalent to "z"
lines. So far, they have been non-globbing versions of the
latter, and have thus been redundant. In future, it is
recommended to only use "z". "m" has hence been removed
from the documentation, even though it stays supported.
* A tmpfiles snippet to recreate the most basic structure in
/var has been added. This is enough to create the /var/run →
/run symlink and create a couple of structural
directories. This allows systems to boot up with an empty or
volatile /var. Of course, while with this change, the core OS
now is capable with dealing with a volatile /var, not all
user services are ready for it. However, we hope that sooner
or later, many service daemons will be changed upstream so
that they are able to automatically create their necessary
directories in /var at boot, should they be missing. This is
the first step to allow state-less systems that only require
the vendor image for /usr to boot.
* systemd-nspawn has gained a new --tmpfs= switch to mount an
empty tmpfs instance to a specific directory. This is
particularly useful for making use of the automatic
reconstruction of /var (see above), by passing --tmpfs=/var.
* Access modes specified in tmpfiles snippets may now be
prefixed with "~", which indicates that they shall be masked
by whether the existing file or directory is currently
writable, readable or executable at all. Also, if specified,
the sgid/suid/sticky bits will be masked for all
* A new passive target unit "" has been
added which is useful for services that shall run before any
network is configured, for example firewall scripts.
* The "floppy" group that previously owned the /dev/fd*
devices is no longer used. The "disk" group is now used
instead. Distributions should probably deprecate usage of
this group.
Contributions from: Camilo Aguilar, Christian Hesse, Colin Ian
King, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Dave Reisner, David
Strauss, Denis Tikhomirov, John, Jonathan Liu, Kay Sievers,
Lennart Poettering, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mark Eichin, Ronny
Chevalier, Susant Sahani, Thomas Blume, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Zbigniew
-- Berlin, 2014-06-11
* A new "systemd-timesyncd" daemon has been added for
synchronizing the system clock across the network. It
implements an SNTP client. In contrast to NTP
implementations such as chrony or the NTP reference server,
this only implements a client side, and does not bother with
the full NTP complexity, focusing only on querying time from
one remote server and synchronizing the local clock to
it. Unless you intend to serve NTP to networked clients or
want to connect to local hardware clocks, this simple NTP
client should be more than appropriate for most
installations. The daemon runs with minimal privileges, and
has been hooked up with networkd to only operate when
network connectivity is available. The daemon saves the
current clock to disk every time a new NTP sync has been
acquired, and uses this to possibly correct the system clock
early at bootup, in order to accommodate for systems that
lack an RTC such as the Raspberry Pi and embedded devices,
and to make sure that time monotonically progresses on these
systems, even if it is not always correct. To make use of
this daemon, a new system user and group "systemd-timesync"
needs to be created on installation of systemd.
* The queue "seqnum" interface of libudev has been disabled, as
it was generally incompatible with device namespacing as
sequence numbers of devices go "missing" if the devices are
part of a different namespace.
* "systemctl list-timers" and "systemctl list-sockets" gained
a --recursive switch for showing units of these types also
for all local containers, similar in style to the already
supported --recursive switch for "systemctl list-units".
* A new RebootArgument= setting has been added for service
units, which may be used to specify a kernel reboot argument
to use when triggering reboots with StartLimitAction=.
* A new FailureAction= setting has been added for service
units which may be used to specify an operation to trigger
when a service fails. This works similarly to
StartLimitAction=, but unlike it, controls what is done
immediately rather than only after several attempts to
restart the service in question.
* hostnamed got updated to also expose the kernel name,
release, and version on the bus. This is useful for
executing commands like hostnamectl with the -H switch.
systemd-analyze makes use of this to properly display
details when running non-locally.
* The bootchart tool can now show cgroup information in the
graphs it generates.
* The CFS CPU quota cgroup attribute is now exposed for
services. The new CPUQuota= switch has been added for this
which takes a percentage value. Setting this will have the
result that a service may never get more CPU time than the
specified percentage, even if the machine is otherwise idle.
* systemd-networkd learned IPIP and SIT tunnel support.
* LSB init scripts exposing a dependency on $network will now
get a dependency on rather than simply This should bring LSB handling closer to
what it was on SysV systems.
* A new kernel option has been added to control
how fsck shall deal with unclean file systems at boot.
* The (.ini) configuration file parser will now silently
ignore sections whose name begins with "X-". This may be
used to maintain application-specific extension sections in unit
* machined gained a new API to query the IP addresses of
registered containers. "machinectl status" has been updated
to show these addresses in its output.
* A new call sd_uid_get_display() has been added to the
sd-login APIs for querying the "primary" session of a
user. The "primary" session of the user is elected from the
user's sessions and generally a graphical session is
preferred over a text one.
* A minimal systemd-resolved daemon has been added. It
currently simply acts as a companion to systemd-networkd and
manages resolv.conf based on per-interface DNS
configuration, possibly supplied via DHCP. In the long run
we hope to extend this into a local DNSSEC enabled DNS and
mDNS cache.
* The systemd-networkd-wait-online tool is now enabled by
default. It will delay until a network
connection has been configured. The tool primarily integrates
with networkd, but will also make a best effort to make sense
of network configuration performed in some other way.
* Two new service options StartupCPUShares= and
StartupBlockIOWeight= have been added that work similarly to
CPUShares= and BlockIOWeight= however only apply during
system startup. This is useful to prioritize certain services
differently during bootup than during normal runtime.
* hostnamed has been changed to prefer the statically
configured hostname in /etc/hostname (unless set to
'localhost' or empty) over any dynamic one supplied by
dhcp. With this change, the rules for picking the hostname
match more closely the rules of other configuration settings
where the local administrator's configuration in /etc always
overrides any other settings.
Contributions fron: Ali H. Caliskan, Alison Chaiken, Bas van
den Berg, Brandon Philips, Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch,
Dan Kilman, Dave Reisner, David Härdeman, David Herrmann,
David Strauss, Dimitris Spingos, Djalal Harouni, Eelco
Dolstra, Evan Nemerson, Florian Albrechtskirchinger, Greg
Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan
Engelhardt, Jani Nikula, Jason St. John, Jeffrey Clark,
Jonathan Boulle, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas
Nykryn, Lukasz Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Mantas Mikulėnas,
Marcel Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Michal Sekletar, Mike Gilbert, Nis
Martensen, Patrik Flykt, Philip Lorenz, poma, Ray Strode,
Reyad Attiyat, Robert Milasan, Scott Thrasher, Stef Walter,
Steven Siloti, Susant Sahani, Tanu Kaskinen, Thomas Bächler,
Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar
Lindskog, WaLyong Cho, Will Woods, Zbigniew
-- Beijing, 2014-05-28
* When restoring the screen brightness at boot, stay away from
the darkest setting or from the lowest 5% of the available
range, depending on which is the larger value of both. This
should effectively protect the user from rebooting into a
black screen, should the brightness have been set to minimum
by accident.
* sd-login gained a new sd_machine_get_class() call to
determine the class ("vm" or "container") of a machine
registered with machined.
* sd-login gained new calls
to query the identity of the peer of a local AF_UNIX
connection. They operate similarly to their sd_pid_get_xyz()
* PID 1 will now maintain a system-wide system state engine
with the states "starting", "running", "degraded",
"maintenance", "stopping". These states are bound to system
startup, normal runtime, runtime with at least one failed
service, rescue/emergency mode and system shutdown. This
state is shown in the "systemctl status" output when no unit
name is passed. It is useful to determine system state, in
particularly when doing so for many systems or containers at
* A new command "list-machines" has been added to "systemctl"
that lists all local OS containers and shows their system
state (see above), if systemd runs inside of them.
* systemctl gained a new "-r" switch to recursively enumerate
units on all local containers, when used with the
"list-unit" command (which is the default one that is
executed when no parameters are specified).
* The GPT automatic partition discovery logic will now honour
two GPT partition flags: one may be set on a partition to
cause it to be mounted read-only, and the other may be set
on a partition to ignore it during automatic discovery.
* Two new GPT type UUIDs have been added for automatic root
partition discovery, for 32-bit and 64-bit ARM. This is not
particularly useful for discovering the root directory on
these architectures during bare-metal boots (since UEFI is
not common there), but still very useful to allow booting of
ARM disk images in nspawn with the -i option.
* MAC addresses of interfaces created with nspawn's
--network-interface= switch will now be generated from the
machine name, and thus be stable between multiple invocations
of the container.
* logind will now automatically remove all IPC objects owned
by a user if she or he fully logs out. This makes sure that
users who are logged out cannot continue to consume IPC
resources. This covers SysV memory, semaphores and message
queues as well as POSIX shared memory and message
queues. Traditionally, SysV and POSIX IPC had no life-cycle
limits. With this functionality, that is corrected. This may
be turned off by using the RemoveIPC= switch of logind.conf.
* The systemd-machine-id-setup and tmpfiles tools gained a
--root= switch to operate on a specific root directory,
instead of /.
* journald can now forward logged messages to the TTYs of all
logged in users ("wall"). This is the default for all
emergency messages now.
* A new tool systemd-journal-remote has been added to stream
journal log messages across the network.
* /sys/fs/cgroup/ is now mounted read-only after all cgroup
controller trees are mounted into it. Note that the
directories mounted beneath it are not read-only. This is a
security measure and is particularly useful because glibc
actually includes a search logic to pick any tmpfs it can
find to implement shm_open() if /dev/shm is not available
(which it might very well be in namespaced setups).
* machinectl gained a new "poweroff" command to cleanly power
down a local OS container.
* The PrivateDevices= unit file setting will now also drop the
CAP_MKNOD capability from the capability bound set, and
imply DevicePolicy=closed.
* PrivateDevices=, PrivateNetwork= and PrivateTmp= is now used
comprehensively on all long-running systemd services where
this is appropriate.
* systemd-udevd will now run in a disassociated mount
namespace. To mount directories from udev rules, make sure to
pull in mount units via SYSTEMD_WANTS properties.
* The kdbus support gained support for uploading policy into
the kernel. sd-bus gained support for creating "monitoring"
connections that can eavesdrop into all bus communication
for debugging purposes.
* Timestamps may now be specified in seconds since the UNIX
epoch Jan 1st, 1970 by specifying "@" followed by the value
in seconds.
* Native tcpwrap support in systemd has been removed. tcpwrap
is old code, not really maintained anymore and has serious
shortcomings, and better options such as firewalls
exist. For setups that require tcpwrap usage, please
consider invoking your socket-activated service via tcpd,
like on traditional inetd.
* A new system.conf configuration option
DefaultTimerAccuracySec= has been added that controls the
default AccuracySec= setting of .timer units.
* Timer units gained a new WakeSystem= switch. If enabled,
timers configured this way will cause the system to resume
from system suspend (if the system supports that, which most
do these days).
* Timer units gained a new Persistent= switch. If enabled,
timers configured this way will save to disk when they have
been last triggered. This information is then used on next
reboot to possible execute overdue timer events, that
could not take place because the system was powered off.
This enables simple anacron-like behaviour for timer units.
* systemctl's "list-timers" will now also list the time a
timer unit was last triggered in addition to the next time
it will be triggered.
* systemd-networkd will now assign predictable IPv4LL
addresses to its local interfaces.
Contributions from: Brandon Philips, Daniel Buch, Daniel Mack,
Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gerd Hoffmann, Greg
Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Jason St. John, Josh
Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Marc-Antoine
Perennou, Michael Marineau, Michael Olbrich, Miklos Vajna,
Patrik Flykt, poma, Sebastian Thorarensen, Thomas Bächler,
Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom Gundersen,
Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Wieland Hoffmann, Zbigniew
-- Berlin, 2014-03-25
* A new unit file setting RestrictAddressFamilies= has been
added to restrict which socket address families unit
processes gain access to. This takes address family names
like "AF_INET" or "AF_UNIX", and is useful to minimize the
attack surface of services via exotic protocol stacks. This
is built on seccomp system call filters.
* Two new unit file settings RuntimeDirectory= and
RuntimeDirectoryMode= have been added that may be used to
manage a per-daemon runtime directories below /run. This is
an alternative for setting up directory permissions with
tmpfiles snippets, and has the advantage that the runtime
directory's lifetime is bound to the daemon runtime and that
the daemon starts up with an empty directory each time. This
is particularly useful when writing services that drop
privileges using the User= or Group= setting.
* The DeviceAllow= unit setting now supports globbing for
matching against device group names.
* The systemd configuration file system.conf gained new
settings DefaultCPUAccounting=, DefaultBlockIOAccounting=,
DefaultMemoryAccounting= to globally turn on/off accounting
for specific resources (cgroups) for all units. These
settings may still be overridden individually in each unit
* systemd-gpt-auto-generator is now able to discover /srv and
root partitions in addition to /home and swap partitions. It
also supports LUKS-encrypted partitions now. With this in
place, automatic discovery of partitions to mount following
the Discoverable Partitions Specification
is now a lot more complete. This allows booting without
/etc/fstab and without root= on the kernel command line on
systems prepared appropriately.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --image= switch which allows
booting up disk images and Linux installations on any block
device that follow the Discoverable Partitions Specification
(see above). This means that installations made with
appropriately updated installers may now be started and
deployed using container managers, completely
unmodified. (We hope that libvirt-lxc will add support for
this feature soon, too.)
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-macvlan= setting to
set up a private macvlan interface for the
container. Similarly, systemd-networkd gained a new
Kind=macvlan setting in .netdev files.
* systemd-networkd now supports configuring local addresses
using IPv4LL.
* A new tool systemd-network-wait-online has been added to
synchronously wait for network connectivity using
* The sd-bus.h bus API gained a new sd_bus_track object for
tracking the life-cycle of bus peers. Note that sd-bus.h is
still not a public API though (unless you specify
--enable-kdbus on the configure command line, which however
voids your warranty and you get no API stability guarantee).
* The $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR runtime directories for each user are
now individual tmpfs instances, which has the benefit of
introducing separate pools for each user, with individual
size limits, and thus making sure that unprivileged clients
can no longer negatively impact the system or other users by
filling up their $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR. A new logind.conf setting
RuntimeDirectorySize= has been introduced that allows
controlling the default size limit for all users. It
defaults to 10% of the available physical memory. This is no
replacement for quotas on tmpfs though (which the kernel
still does not support), as /dev/shm and /tmp are still
shared resources used by both the system and unprivileged
* logind will now automatically turn off automatic suspending
on laptop lid close when more than one display is
connected. This was previously expected to be implemented
individually in desktop environments (such as GNOME),
however has been added to logind now, in order to fix a
boot-time race where a desktop environment might not have
been started yet and thus not been able to take an inhibitor
lock at the time where logind already suspends the system
due to a closed lid.
* logind will now wait at least 30s after each system
suspend/resume cycle, and 3min after system boot before
suspending the system due to a closed laptop lid. This
should give USB docking stations and similar enough time to
be probed and configured after system resume and boot in
order to then act as suspend blocker.
* systemd-run gained a new --property= setting which allows
initialization of resource control properties (and others)
for the created scope or service unit. Example: "systemd-run
--property=BlockIOWeight=10 updatedb" may be used to run
updatedb at a low block IO scheduling weight.
* systemd-run's --uid=, --gid=, --setenv=, --setenv= switches
now also work in --scope mode.
* When systemd is compiled with kdbus support, basic support
for enforced policies is now in place. (Note that enabling
kdbus still voids your warranty and no API compatibility
promises are made.)
Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Ansgar Burchardt, Armin
K., Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
Harald Hoyer, Henrik Grindal Bakken, Jasper St. Pierre, Kay
Sievers, Kieran Clancy, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel Holtmann, Mark Oteiza, Martin Pitt,
Mike Gilbert, Peter Rajnoha, poma, Samuli Suominen, Stef
Walter, Susant Sahani, Tero Roponen, Thomas Andersen, Thomas
Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tomasz Torcz, Tom
Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Uoti Urpala, Zachary Cook,
Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2014-03-12
* systemd will now relabel /dev after loading the SMACK policy
according to SMACK rules.
* A new unit file option AppArmorProfile= has been added to
set the AppArmor profile for the processes of a unit.
* A new condition check ConditionArchitecture= has been added
to conditionalize units based on the system architecture, as
reported by uname()'s "machine" field.
* systemd-networkd now supports matching on the system
virtualization, architecture, kernel command line, host name
and machine ID.
* logind is now a lot more aggressive when suspending the
machine due to a closed laptop lid. Instead of acting only
on the lid close action, it will continuously watch the lid
status and act on it. This is useful for laptops where the
power button is on the outside of the chassis so that it can
be reached without opening the lid (such as the Lenovo
Yoga). On those machines, logind will now immediately
re-suspend the machine if the power button has been
accidentally pressed while the laptop was suspended and in a
backpack or similar.
* logind will now watch SW_DOCK switches and inhibit reaction
to the lid switch if it is pressed. This means that logind
will not suspend the machine anymore if the lid is closed
and the system is docked, if the laptop supports SW_DOCK
notifications via the input layer. Note that ACPI docking
stations do not generate this currently. Also note that this
logic is usually not fully sufficient and Desktop
Environments should take a lid switch inhibitor lock when an
external display is connected, as systemd will not watch
this on its own.
* nspawn will now make use of the devices cgroup controller by
default, and only permit creation of and access to the usual
API device nodes like /dev/null or /dev/random, as well as
access to (but not creation of) the pty devices.
* We will now ship a default .network file for
systemd-networkd that automatically configures DHCP for
network interfaces created by nspawn's --network-veth or
--network-bridge= switches.
* systemd will now understand the usual M, K, G, T suffixes
according to SI conventions (i.e. to the base 1000) when
referring to throughput and hardware metrics. It will stay
with IEC conventions (i.e. to the base 1024) for software
metrics, according to what is customary according to
Wikipedia. We explicitly document which base applies for
each configuration option.
* The DeviceAllow= setting in unit files now supports a syntax
to whitelist an entire group of devices node majors at once,
based on the /proc/devices listing. For example, with the
string "char-pts", it is now possible to whitelist all
current and future pseudo-TTYs at once.
* sd-event learned a new "post" event source. Event sources of
this type are triggered by the dispatching of any event
source of a type that is not "post". This is useful for
implementing clean-up and check event sources that are
triggered by other work being done in the program.
* systemd-networkd is no longer statically enabled, but uses
the usual [Install] sections so that it can be
enabled/disabled using systemctl. It still is enabled by
default however.
* When creating a veth interface pair with systemd-nspawn, the
host side will now be prefixed with "vb-" if
--network-bridge= is used, and with "ve-" if --network-veth
is used. This way, it is easy to distinguish these cases on
the host, for example to apply different configuration to
them with systemd-networkd.
* The compatibility libraries for,, and do not make use of IFUNC
anymore. Instead, we now build multiple times
under these alternative names. This means that the footprint
is drastically increased, but given that these are
transitional compatibility libraries, this should not matter
much. This change has been made necessary to support the ARM
platform for these compatibility libraries, as the ARM
toolchain is not really at the same level as the toolchain
for other architectures like x86 and does not support
IFUNC. Please make sure to use --enable-compat-libs only
during a transitional period!
Contributions from: Andreas Fuchs, Armin K., Colin Walters,
Daniel Mack, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Djalal Harouni,
Holger Schurig, Jason A. Donenfeld, Jason St. John, Jasper
St. Pierre, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Łukasz Stelmach,
Marcel Holtmann, Michael Scherer, Michal Sekletar, Mike
Gilbert, Samuli Suominen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog,
Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2014-02-24
* A new component "systemd-networkd" has been added that can
be used to configure local network interfaces statically or
via DHCP. It is capable of bringing up bridges, VLANs, and
bonding. Currently, no hook-ups for interactive network
configuration are provided. Use this for your initrd,
container, embedded, or server setup if you need a simple,
yet powerful, network configuration solution. This
configuration subsystem is quite nifty, as it allows wildcard
hotplug matching in interfaces. For example, with a single
configuration snippet, you can configure that all Ethernet
interfaces showing up are automatically added to a bridge,
or similar. It supports link-sensing and more.
* A new tool "systemd-socket-proxyd" has been added which can
act as a bidirectional proxy for TCP sockets. This is
useful for adding socket activation support to services that
do not actually support socket activation, including virtual
machines and the like.
* Add a new tool to save/restore rfkill state on
* Save/restore state of keyboard backlights in addition to
display backlights on shutdown/boot.
* udev learned a new SECLABEL{} construct to label device
nodes with a specific security label when they appear. For
now, only SECLABEL{selinux} is supported, but the syntax is
prepared for additional security frameworks.
* udev gained a new scheme to configure link-level attributes
from files in /etc/systemd/network/*.link. These files can
match against MAC address, device path, driver name and type,
and will apply attributes like the naming policy, link speed,
MTU, duplex settings, Wake-on-LAN settings, MAC address, MAC
address assignment policy (randomized, ...).
* The configuration of network interface naming rules for
"permanent interface names" has changed: a new NamePolicy=
setting in the [Link] section of .link files determines the
priority of possible naming schemes (onboard, slot, mac,
path). The default value of this setting is determined by
/usr/lib/net/links/ Old
80-net-name-slot.rules udev configuration file has been
removed, so local configuration overriding this file should
be adapated to override instead.
* When the User= switch is used in a unit file, also
initialize $SHELL= based on the user database entry.
* systemd no longer depends on libdbus. All communication is
now done with sd-bus, systemd's low-level bus library
* kdbus support has been added to PID 1 itself. When kdbus is
enabled, this causes PID 1 to set up the system bus and
enable support for a new ".busname" unit type that
encapsulates bus name activation on kdbus. It works a little
bit like ".socket" units, except for bus names. A new
generator has been added that converts classic dbus1 service
activation files automatically into native systemd .busname
and .service units.
* sd-bus: add a light-weight vtable implementation that allows
defining objects on the bus with a simple static const
vtable array of its methods, signals and properties.
* systemd will not generate or install static dbus
introspection data anymore to /usr/share/dbus-1/interfaces,
as the precise format of these files is unclear, and
nothing makes use of it.
* A proxy daemon is now provided to proxy clients connecting
via classic D-Bus AF_UNIX sockets to kdbus, to provide full
compatibility with classic D-Bus.
* A bus driver implementation has been added that supports the
classic D-Bus bus driver calls on kdbus, also for
compatibility purposes.
* A new API "sd-event.h" has been added that implements a
minimal event loop API built around epoll. It provides a
couple of features that direct epoll usage is lacking:
prioritization of events, scales to large numbers of timer
events, per-event timer slack (accuracy), system-wide
coalescing of timer events, exit handlers, watchdog
supervision support using systemd's sd_notify() API, child
process handling.
* A new API "sd-rntl.h" has been added that provides an API
around the route netlink interface of the kernel, similar in
style to "sd-bus.h".
* A new API "sd-dhcp-client.h" has been added that provides a
small DHCPv4 client-side implementation. This is used by
* There is a new kernel command line option
"systemd.restore_state=0|1". When set to "0", none of the
systemd tools will restore saved runtime state to hardware
devices. More specifically, the rfkill and backlight states
are not restored.
* The FsckPassNo= compatibility option in mount/service units
has been removed. The fstab generator will now add the
necessary dependencies automatically, and does not require
PID1's support for that anymore.
* journalctl gained a new switch, --list-boots, that lists
recent boots with their times and boot IDs.
* The various tools like systemctl, loginctl, timedatectl,
busctl, systemd-run, ... have gained a new switch "-M" to
connect to a specific, local OS container (as direct
connection, without requiring SSH). This works on any
container that is registered with machined, such as those
created by libvirt-lxc or nspawn.
* systemd-run and systemd-analyze also gained support for "-H"
to connect to remote hosts via SSH. This is particularly
useful for systemd-run because it enables queuing of jobs
onto remote systems.
* machinectl gained a new command "login" to open a getty
login in any local container. This works with any container
that is registered with machined (such as those created by
libvirt-lxc or nspawn), and which runs systemd inside.
* machinectl gained a new "reboot" command that may be used to
trigger a reboot on a specific container that is registered
with machined. This works on any container that runs an init
system of some kind.
* systemctl gained a new "list-timers" command to print a nice
listing of installed timer units with the times they elapse
* Alternative reboot() parameters may now be specified on the
"systemctl reboot" command line and are passed to the
reboot() system call.
* systemctl gained a new --job-mode= switch to configure the
mode to queue a job with. This is a more generic version of
--fail, --irreversible, and --ignore-dependencies, which are
still available but not advertised anymore.
* /etc/systemd/system.conf gained new settings to configure
various default timeouts of units, as well as the default
start limit interval and burst. These may still be overridden
within each Unit.
* PID1 will now export on the bus profile data of the security
policy upload process (such as the SELinux policy upload to
the kernel).
* journald: when forwarding logs to the console, include
timestamps (following the setting in
* OnCalendar= in timer units now understands the special
strings "yearly" and "annually". (Both are equivalent)
* The accuracy of timer units is now configurable with the new
AccuracySec= setting. It defaults to 1min.
* A new dependency type JoinsNamespaceOf= has been added that
allows running two services within the same /tmp and network
namespace, if PrivateNetwork= or PrivateTmp= are used.
* A new command "cat" has been added to systemctl. It outputs
the original unit file of a unit, and concatenates the
contents of additional "drop-in" unit file snippets, so that
the full configuration is shown.
* systemctl now supports globbing on the various "list-xyz"
commands, like "list-units" or "list-sockets", as well as on
those commands which take multiple unit names.
* journalctl's --unit= switch gained support for globbing.
* All systemd daemons now make use of the watchdog logic so
that systemd automatically notices when they hang.
* If the $container_ttys environment variable is set,
getty-generator will automatically spawn a getty for each
listed tty. This is useful for container managers to request
login gettys to be spawned on as many ttys as needed.
* %h, %s, %U specifier support is not available anymore when
used in unit files for PID 1. This is because NSS calls are
not safe from PID 1. They stay available for --user
instances of systemd, and as special case for the root user.
* loginctl gained a new "--no-legend" switch to turn off output
of the legend text.
* The "sd-login.h" API gained three new calls:
sd_session_is_remote(), sd_session_get_remote_user(),
sd_session_get_remote_host() to query information about
remote sessions.
* The udev hardware database now also carries vendor/product
information of SDIO devices.
* The "sd-daemon.h" API gained a new sd_watchdog_enabled() to
determine whether watchdog notifications are requested by
the system manager.
* Socket-activated per-connection services now include a
short description of the connection parameters in the
* tmpfiles gained a new "--boot" option. When this is not used,
only lines where the command character is not suffixed with
"!" are executed. When this option is specified, those
options are executed too. This partitions tmpfiles
directives into those that can be safely executed at any
time, and those which should be run only at boot (for
example, a line that creates /run/nologin).
* A new API "sd-resolve.h" has been added which provides a simple
asynchronous wrapper around glibc NSS host name resolution
calls, such as getaddrinfo(). In contrast to glibc's
getaddrinfo_a(), it does not use signals. In contrast to most
other asynchronous name resolution libraries, this one does
not reimplement DNS, but reuses NSS, so that alternate
host name resolution systems continue to work, such as mDNS,
LDAP, etc. This API is based on libasyncns, but it has been
cleaned up for inclusion in systemd.
* The APIs "sd-journal.h", "sd-login.h", "sd-id128.h",
"sd-daemon.h" are no longer found in individual libraries,,, Instead, we have
merged them into a single library,, which
provides all symbols. The reason for this is cyclic
dependencies, as these libraries tend to use each other's
symbols. So far, we have managed to workaround that by linking
a copy of a good part of our code into each of these
libraries again and again, which, however, makes certain
things hard to do, like sharing static variables. Also, it
substantially increases footprint. With this change, there
is only one library for the basic APIs systemd
provides. Also, "sd-bus.h", "sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h",
"sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h", "sd-utf8.h" are found in this
library as well, however are subject to the --enable-kdbus
switch (see below). Note that "sd-dhcp-client.h" is not part
of this library (this is because it only consumes, never
provides, services of/to other APIs). To make the transition
easy from the separate libraries to the unified one, we
provide the --enable-compat-libs compile-time switch which
will generate stub libraries that are compatible with the
old ones but redirect all calls to the new one.
* All of the kdbus logic and the new APIs "sd-bus.h",
"sd-memfd.h", "sd-event.h", "sd-rtnl.h", "sd-resolve.h",
and "sd-utf8.h" are compile-time optional via the
"--enable-kdbus" switch, and they are not compiled in by
default. To make use of kdbus, you have to explicitly enable
the switch. Note however, that neither the kernel nor the
userspace API for all of this is considered stable yet. We
want to maintain the freedom to still change the APIs for
now. By specifying this build-time switch, you acknowledge
that you are aware of the instability of the current
* Also, note that while kdbus is pretty much complete,
it lacks one thing: proper policy support. This means you
can build a fully working system with all features; however,
it will be highly insecure. Policy support will be added in
one of the next releases, at the same time that we will
declare the APIs stable.
* When the kernel command line argument "kdbus" is specified,
systemd will automatically load the kdbus.ko kernel module. At
this stage of development, it is only useful for testing kdbus
and should not be used in production. Note: if "--enable-kdbus"
is specified, and the kdbus.ko kernel module is available, and
"kdbus" is added to the kernel command line, the entire system
runs with kdbus instead of dbus-daemon, with the above mentioned
problem of missing the system policy enforcement. Also a future
version of kdbus.ko or a newer systemd will not be compatible with
each other, and will unlikely be able to boot the machine if only
one of them is updated.
* systemctl gained a new "import-environment" command which
uploads the caller's environment (or parts thereof) into the
service manager so that it is inherited by services started
by the manager. This is useful to upload variables like
$DISPLAY into the user service manager.
* A new PrivateDevices= switch has been added to service units
which allows running a service with a namespaced /dev
directory that does not contain any device nodes for
physical devices. More specifically, it only includes devices
such as /dev/null, /dev/urandom, and /dev/zero which are API
entry points.
* logind has been extended to support behaviour like VT
switching on seats that do not support a VT. This makes
multi-session available on seats that are not the first seat
(seat0), and on systems where kernel support for VTs has
been disabled at compile-time.
* If a process holds a delay lock for system sleep or shutdown
and fails to release it in time, we will now log its
identity. This makes it easier to identify processes that
cause slow suspends or power-offs.
* When parsing /etc/crypttab, support for a new key-slot=
option as supported by Debian is added. It allows indicating
which LUKS slot to use on disk, speeding up key loading.
* The sd_journald_sendv() API call has been checked and
officially declared to be async-signal-safe so that it may
be invoked from signal handlers for logging purposes.
* Boot-time status output is now enabled automatically after a
short timeout if boot does not progress, in order to give
the user an indication what she or he is waiting for.
* The boot-time output has been improved to show how much time
remains until jobs expire.
* The KillMode= switch in service units gained a new possible
value "mixed". If set, and the unit is shut down, then the
initial SIGTERM signal is sent only to the main daemon
process, while the following SIGKILL signal is sent to
all remaining processes of the service.
* When a scope unit is registered, a new property "Controller"
may be set. If set to a valid bus name, systemd will send a
RequestStop() signal to this name when it would like to shut
down the scope. This may be used to hook manager logic into
the shutdown logic of scope units. Also, scope units may now
be put in a special "abandoned" state, in which case the
manager process which created them takes no further
responsibilities for it.
* When reading unit files, systemd will now verify
the access mode of these files, and warn about certain
suspicious combinations. This has been added to make it
easier to track down packaging bugs where unit files are
marked executable or world-writable.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new "--setenv=" switch to set
container-wide environment variables. The similar option in
systemd-activate was renamed from "--environment=" to
"--setenv=" for consistency.
* systemd-nspawn has been updated to create a new kdbus domain
for each container that is invoked, thus allowing each
container to have its own set of system and user buses,
independent of the host.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --drop-capability= switch to run
the container with less capabilities than the default. Both
--drop-capability= and --capability= now take the special
string "all" for dropping or keeping all capabilities.
* systemd-nspawn gained new switches for executing containers
with specific SELinux labels set.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --quiet switch to not generate
any additional output but the container's own console
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --share-system switch to run a
container without PID namespacing enabled.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --register= switch to control
whether the container is registered with systemd-machined or
not. This is useful for containers that do not run full
OS images, but only specific apps.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --keep-unit which may be used
when invoked as the only program from a service unit, and
results in registration of the unit service itself in
systemd-machined, instead of a newly opened scope unit.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --network-interface= switch for
moving arbitrary interfaces to the container. The new
--network-veth switch creates a virtual Ethernet connection
between host and container. The new --network-bridge=
switch then allows assigning the host side of this virtual
Ethernet connection to a bridge device.
* systemd-nspawn gained a new --personality= switch for
setting the kernel personality for the container. This is
useful when running a 32-bit container on a 64-bit host. A
similar option Personality= is now also available for service
units to use.
* logind will now also track a "Desktop" identifier for each
session which encodes the desktop environment of it. This is
useful for desktop environments that want to identify
multiple running sessions of itself easily.
* A new SELinuxContext= setting for service units has been
added that allows setting a specific SELinux execution
context for a service.
* Most systemd client tools will now honour $SYSTEMD_LESS for
settings of the "less" pager. By default, these tools will
override $LESS to allow certain operations to work, such as
jump-to-the-end. With $SYSTEMD_LESS, it is possible to
influence this logic.
* systemd's "seccomp" hook-up has been changed to make use of
the libseccomp library instead of using its own
implementation. This has benefits for portability among
other things.
* For usage together with SystemCallFilter=, a new
SystemCallErrorNumber= setting has been introduced that
allows configuration of a system error number to be returned
on filtered system calls, instead of immediately killing the
process. Also, SystemCallArchitectures= has been added to
limit access to system calls of a particular architecture
(in order to turn off support for unused secondary
architectures). There is also a global
SystemCallArchitectures= setting in system.conf now to turn
off support for non-native system calls system-wide.
* systemd requires a kernel with a working name_to_handle_at(),
please see the kernel config requirements in the README file.
Contributions from: Adam Williamson, Alex Jia, Anatol Pomozov,
Ansgar Burchardt, AppleBloom, Auke Kok, Bastien Nocera,
Chengwei Yang, Christian Seiler, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniele Medri, Daniel J
Walsh, Daniel Mack, Dan McGee, Dave Reisner, David Coppa,
David Herrmann, David Strauss, Djalal Harouni, Dmitry Pisklov,
Elia Pinto, Florian Weimer, George McCollister, Goffredo
Baroncelli, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Hendrik Brueckner, Igor
Zhbanov, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason A. Donenfeld,
Jason St. John, Jasper St. Pierre, Jóhann B. Guðmundsson, Jose
Ignacio Naranjo, Karel Zak, Kay Sievers, Kristian Høgsberg,
Lennart Poettering, Lubomir Rintel, Lukas Nykryn, Lukasz
Skalski, Łukasz Stelmach, Luke Shumaker, Mantas Mikulėnas,
Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marcel Holtmann, Marcos Felipe Rasia de
Mello, Marko Myllynen, Martin Pitt, Matthew Monaco, Michael
Marineau, Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Michal Sekletar,
Michele Curti, Oleksii Shevchuk, Olivier Brunel, Patrik Flykt,
Pavel Holica, Raudi, Richard Marko, Ronny Chevalier, Sébastien
Luttringer, Sergey Ptashnick, Shawn Landden, Simon Peeters,
Stefan Beller, Susant Sahani, Sylvain Plantefeve, Sylvia Else,
Tero Roponen, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen,
Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar Lindskog, Unai Uribarri, Václav
Pavlín, Vincent Batts, WaLyong Cho, William Giokas, Yang
Zhiyong, Yin Kangkai, Yuxuan Shui, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2014-02-20
* logind has gained support for facilitating privileged input
and drm device access for unprivileged clients. This work is
useful to allow Wayland display servers (and similar
programs, such as kmscon) to run under the user's ID and
access input and drm devices which are normally
protected. When this is used (and the kernel is new enough)
logind will "mute" IO on the file descriptors passed to
Wayland as long as it is in the background and "unmute" it
if it returns into the foreground. This allows secure
session switching without allowing background sessions to
eavesdrop on input and display data. This also introduces
session switching support if VT support is turned off in the
kernel, and on seats that are not seat0.
* A new kernel command line option luks.options= is understood
now which allows specifying LUKS options for usage for LUKS
encrypted partitions specified with luks.uuid=.
* tmpfiles.d(5) snippets may now use specifier expansion in
path names. More specifically %m, %b, %H, %v, are now
replaced by the local machine id, boot id, hostname, and
kernel version number.
* A new tmpfiles.d(5) command "m" has been introduced which
may be used to change the owner/group/access mode of a file
or directory if it exists, but do nothing if it does not.
* This release removes high-level support for the
MemorySoftLimit= cgroup setting. The underlying kernel
cgroup attribute memory.soft_limit= is currently badly
designed and likely to be removed from the kernel API in its
current form, hence we should not expose it for now.
* The memory.use_hierarchy cgroup attribute is now enabled for
all cgroups systemd creates in the memory cgroup
hierarchy. This option is likely to be come the built-in
default in the kernel anyway, and the non-hierarchical mode
never made much sense in the intrinsically hierarchical
cgroup system.
* A new field _SYSTEMD_SLICE= is logged along with all journal
messages containing the slice a message was generated
from. This is useful to allow easy per-customer filtering of
logs among other things.
* systemd-journald will no longer adjust the group of journal
files it creates to the "systemd-journal" group. Instead we
rely on the journal directory to be owned by the
"systemd-journal" group, and its setgid bit set, so that the
kernel file system layer will automatically enforce that
journal files inherit this group assignment. The reason for
this change is that we cannot allow NSS look-ups from
journald which would be necessary to resolve
"systemd-journal" to a numeric GID, because this might
create deadlocks if NSS involves synchronous queries to
other daemons (such as nscd, or sssd) which in turn are
logging clients of journald and might block on it, which
would then dead lock. A tmpfiles.d(5) snippet included in
systemd will make sure the setgid bit and group are
properly set on the journal directory if it exists on every
boot. However, we recommend adjusting it manually after
upgrades too (or from RPM scriptlets), so that the change is
not delayed until next reboot.
* Backlight and random seed files in /var/lib/ have moved into
the /var/lib/systemd/ directory, in order to centralize all
systemd generated files in one directory.
* Boot time performance measurements (as displayed by
"systemd-analyze" for example) will now read ACPI 5.0 FPDT
performance information if that's available to determine how
much time BIOS and boot loader initialization required. With
a sufficiently new BIOS you hence no longer need to boot
with Gummiboot to get access to such information.
Contributions from: Andrey Borzenkov, Chen Jie, Colin Walters,
Cristian Rodríguez, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, David
Mackey, David Strauss, Eelco Dolstra, Evan Callicoat, Gao
feng, Harald Hoyer, Jimmie Tauriainen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt,
Michael Scherer, Michał Górny, Mike Gilbert, Patrick McCarty,
Sebastian Ott, Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2013-10-02
* The Restart= option for services now understands a new
on-watchdog setting, which will restart the service
automatically if the service stops sending out watchdog keep
alive messages (as configured with WatchdogSec=).
* The getty generator (which is responsible for bringing up a
getty on configured serial consoles) will no longer only
start a getty on the primary kernel console but on all
others, too. This makes the order in which console= is
specified on the kernel command line less important.
* libsystemd-logind gained a new sd_session_get_vt() call to
retrieve the VT number of a session.
* If the option "tries=0" is set for an entry of /etc/crypttab
its passphrase is queried indefinitely instead of any
maximum number of tries.
* If a service with a configure PID file terminates its PID
file will now be removed automatically if it still exists
afterwards. This should put an end to stale PID files.
* systemd-run will now also take relative binary path names
for execution and no longer insists on absolute paths.
* InaccessibleDirectories= and ReadOnlyDirectories= now take
paths that are optionally prefixed with "-" to indicate that
it should not be considered a failure if they do not exist.
* journalctl -o (and similar commands) now understands a new
output mode "short-precise", it is similar to "short" but
shows timestamps with usec accuracy.
* The option "discard" (as known from Debian) is now
synonymous to "allow-discards" in /etc/crypttab. In fact,
"discard" is preferred now (since it is easier to remember
and type).
* Some licensing clean-ups were made, so that more code is now
LGPL-2.1 licensed than before.
* A minimal tool to save/restore the display backlight
brightness across reboots has been added. It will store the
backlight setting as late as possible at shutdown, and
restore it as early as possible during reboot.
* A logic to automatically discover and enable home and swap
partitions on GPT disks has been added. With this in place
/etc/fstab becomes optional for many setups as systemd can
discover certain partitions located on the root disk
automatically. Home partitions are recognized under their
GPT type ID 933ac7e12eb44f13b8440e14e2aef915. Swap
partitions are recognized under their GPT type ID
* systemd will no longer pass any environment from the kernel
or initrd to system services. If you want to set an
environment for all services, do so via the kernel command
line systemd.setenv= assignment.
* The systemd-sysctl tool no longer natively reads the file
/etc/sysctl.conf. If desired, the file should be symlinked
from /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf. Apart from providing
legacy support by a symlink rather than built-in code, it
also makes the otherwise hidden order of application of the
different files visible. (Note that this partly reverts to a
pre-198 application order of sysctl knobs!)
* The "systemctl set-log-level" and "systemctl dump" commands
have been moved to systemd-analyze.
* systemd-run learned the new --remain-after-exit switch,
which causes the scope unit not to be cleaned up
automatically after the process terminated.
* tmpfiles learned a new --exclude-prefix= switch to exclude
certain paths from operation.
* journald will now automatically flush all messages to disk
as soon as a message at the log level CRIT, ALERT or EMERG
is received.
Contributions from: Andrew Cook, Brandon Philips, Christian
Hesse, Christoph Junghans, Colin Walters, Daniel Schaal,
Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner, David Herrmann, Gao feng, George
McCollister, Giovanni Campagna, Hannes Reinecke, Harald Hoyer,
Herczeg Zsolt, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt,
Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Khem Raj, Lennart Poettering,
Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marcel
Holtmann, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Marineau,
Michael Scherer, Michael Stapelberg, Michal Sekletar, Michał
Górny, Olivier Brunel, Ondrej Balaz, Ronny Chevalier, Shawn
Landden, Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Bächler, Thomas Hindoe
Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, WANG Chao,
William Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2013-09-13
* The documentation has been updated to cover the various new
concepts introduced with 205.
* Unit files now understand the new %v specifier which
resolves to the kernel version string as returned by "uname
* systemctl now supports filtering the unit list output by
load state, active state and sub state, using the new
--state= parameter.
* "systemctl status" will now show the results of the
condition checks (like ConditionPathExists= and similar) of
the last start attempts of the unit. They are also logged to
the journal.
* "journalctl -b" may now be used to look for boot output of a
specific boot. Try "journalctl -b -1" for the previous boot,
but the syntax is substantially more powerful.
* "journalctl --show-cursor" has been added which prints the
cursor string the last shown log line. This may then be used
with the new "journalctl --after-cursor=" switch to continue
browsing logs from that point on.
* "journalctl --force" may now be used to force regeneration
of an FSS key.
* Creation of "dead" device nodes has been moved from udev
into kmod and tmpfiles. Previously, udev would read the kmod
databases to pre-generate dead device nodes based on meta
information contained in kernel modules, so that these would
be auto-loaded on access rather then at boot. As this
does not really have much to do with the exposing actual
kernel devices to userspace this has always been slightly
alien in the udev codebase. Following the new scheme kmod
will now generate a runtime snippet for tmpfiles from the
module meta information and it now is tmpfiles' job to the
create the nodes. This also allows overriding access and
other parameters for the nodes using the usual tmpfiles
facilities. As side effect this allows us to remove the
CAP_SYS_MKNOD capability bit from udevd entirely.
* logind's device ACLs may now be applied to these "dead"
devices nodes too, thus finally allowing managed access to
devices such as /dev/snd/sequencer whithout loading the
backing module right-away.
* A new RPM macro has been added that may be used to apply
tmpfiles configuration during package installation.
* systemd-detect-virt and ConditionVirtualization= now can
detect User-Mode-Linux machines (UML).
* journald will now implicitly log the effective capabilities
set of processes in the message metadata.
* systemd-cryptsetup has gained support for TrueCrypt volumes.
* The initrd interface has been simplified (more specifically,
support for passing performance data via environment
variables and fsck results via files in /run has been
removed). These features were non-essential, and are
nowadays available in a much nicer way by having systemd in
the initrd serialize its state and have the hosts systemd
deserialize it again.
* The udev "keymap" data files and tools to apply keyboard
specific mappings of scan to key codes, and force-release
scan code lists have been entirely replaced by a udev
"keyboard" builtin and a hwdb data file.
* systemd will now honour the kernel's "quiet" command line
argument also during late shutdown, resulting in a
completely silent shutdown when used.
* There's now an option to control the SO_REUSEPORT socket
option in .socket units.
* Instance units will now automatically get a per-template
subslice of system.slice unless something else is explicitly
configured. For example, instances of sshd@.service will now
implicitly be placed in system-sshd.slice rather than
system.slice as before.
* Test coverage support may now be enabled at build time.
Contributions from: Dave Reisner, Frederic Crozat, Harald
Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Jan Engelhardt, Jan
Janssen, Jason St. John, Jesper Larsen, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Maciej Wereski, Martin Pitt, Michael
Olbrich, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Ross Lagerwall, Shawn Landden,
Thomas H.P. Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Tomasz Torcz, William
Giokas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
-- Berlin, 2013-07-23
* Two new unit types have been introduced:
Scope units are very similar to service units, however, are
created out of pre-existing processes -- instead of PID 1
forking off the processes. By using scope units it is
possible for system services and applications to group their
own child processes (worker processes) in a powerful way
which then maybe used to organize them, or kill them
together, or apply resource limits on them.
Slice units may be used to partition system resources in an
hierarchical fashion and then assign other units to them. By
default there are now three slices: system.slice (for all
system services), user.slice (for all user sessions),
machine.slice (for VMs and containers).
Slices and scopes have been introduced primarily in
context of the work to move cgroup handling to a
single-writer scheme, where only PID 1
creates/removes/manages cgroups.
* There's a new concept of "transient" units. In contrast to
normal units these units are created via an API at runtime,
not from configuration from disk. More specifically this
means it is now possible to run arbitrary programs as
independent services, with all execution parameters passed
in via bus APIs rather than read from disk. Transient units
make systemd substantially more dynamic then it ever was,
and useful as a general batch manager.
* logind has been updated to make use of scope and slice units
for managing user sessions. As a user logs in he will get
his own private slice unit, to which all sessions are added
as scope units. We also added support for automatically
adding an instance of user@.service for the user into the
slice. Effectively logind will no longer create cgroup
hierarchies on its own now, it will defer entirely to PID 1
for this by means of scope, service and slice units. Since
user sessions this way become entities managed by PID 1
the output of "systemctl" is now a lot more comprehensive.
* A new mini-daemon "systemd-machined" has been added which
may be used by virtualization managers to register local
VMs/containers. nspawn has been updated accordingly, and
libvirt will be updated shortly. machined will collect a bit
of meta information about the VMs/containers, and assign
them their own scope unit (see above). The collected
meta-data is then made available via the "machinectl" tool,
and exposed in "ps" and similar tools. machined/machinectl
is compile-time optional.
* As discussed earlier, the low-level cgroup configuration
options ControlGroup=, ControlGroupModify=,
ControlGroupPersistent=, ControlGroupAttribute= have been
removed. Please use high-level attribute settings instead as
well as slice units.
* A new bus call SetUnitProperties() has been added to alter
various runtime parameters of a unit. This is primarily
useful to alter cgroup parameters dynamically in a nice way,
but will be extended later on to make more properties
modifiable at runtime. systemctl gained a new set-properties
command that wraps this call.
* A new tool "systemd-run" has been added which can be used to
run arbitrary command lines as transient services or scopes,
while configuring a number of settings via the command
line. This tool is currently very basic, however already
very useful. We plan to extend this tool to even allow
queuing of execution jobs with time triggers from the
command line, similar in fashion to "at".
* nspawn will now inform the user explicitly that kernels with
audit enabled break containers, and suggest the user to turn
off audit.
* Support for detecting the IMA and AppArmor security
frameworks with ConditionSecurity= has been added.
* journalctl gained a new "-k" switch for showing only kernel
messages, mimicking dmesg output; in addition to "--user"
and "--system" switches for showing only user's own logs
and system logs.
* systemd-delta can now show information about drop-in
snippets extending unit files.
* libsystemd-bus has been substantially updated but is still
not available as public API.
* systemd will now look for the "debug" argument on the kernel
command line and enable debug logging, similar to what
"systemd.log_level=debug" already did before.
* "systemctl set-default", "systemctl get-default" has been
added to configure the symlink, which
controls what to boot into by default.
* "systemctl set-log-level" has been added as a convenient
way to raise and lower systemd logging threshold.
* "systemd-analyze plot" will now show the time the various
generators needed for execution, as well as information
about the unit file loading.
* libsystemd-journal gained a new sd_journal_open_files() call
for opening specific journal files. journactl also gained a
new switch to expose this new functionality. Previously we
only supported opening all files from a directory, or all
files from the system, as opening individual files only is
racy due to journal file rotation.
* systemd gained the new DefaultEnvironment= setting in
/etc/systemd/system.conf to set environment variables for
all services.
* If a privileged process logs a journal message with the
OBJECT_PID= field set, then journald will automatically
augment this with additional OBJECT_UID=, OBJECT_GID=,
OBJECT_COMM=, OBJECT_EXE=, ... fields. This is useful if
system services want to log events about specific client
processes. journactl/systemctl has been updated to make use
of this information if all log messages regarding a specific
unit is requested.
Contributions from: Auke Kok, Chengwei Yang, Colin Walters,
Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Albers, Daniel Wallace, Dave
Reisner, David Coppa, David King, David Strauss, Eelco
Dolstra, Gabriel de Perthuis, Harald Hoyer, Jan Alexander
Steffens, Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jason St. John, Johan
Heikkilä, Karel Zak, Karol Lewandowski, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas, Marius Vollmer,
Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michael Olbrich, Michael Tremer,
Michal Schmidt, Michał Bartoszkiewicz, Nirbheek Chauhan,
Pierre Neidhardt, Ross Burton, Ross Lagerwall, Sean McGovern,
Thomas Hindoe Paaboel Andersen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar,
Václav Pavlín, Zachary Cook, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek,
Łukasz Stelmach, 장동준
* The Python bindings gained some minimal support for the APIs
exposed by libsystemd-logind.
* ConditionSecurity= gained support for detecting SMACK. Since
this condition already supports SELinux and AppArmor we only
miss IMA for this. Patches welcome!
Contributions from: Karol Lewandowski, Lennart Poettering,
Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
* systemd-nspawn will now create /etc/resolv.conf if
necessary, before bind-mounting the host's file onto it.
* systemd-nspawn will now store meta information about a
container on the container's cgroup as extended attribute
fields, including the root directory.
* The cgroup hierarchy has been reworked in many ways. All
objects any of the components systemd creates in the cgroup
tree are now suffixed. More specifically, user sessions are
now placed in cgroups suffixed with ".session", users in
cgroups suffixed with ".user", and nspawn containers in
cgroups suffixed with ".nspawn". Furthermore, all cgroup
names are now escaped in a simple scheme to avoid collision
of userspace object names with kernel filenames. This work
is preparation for making these objects relocatable in the
cgroup tree, in order to allow easy resource partitioning of
these objects without causing naming conflicts.
* systemctl list-dependencies gained the new switches
--plain, --reverse, --after and --before.
* systemd-inhibit now shows the process name of processes that
have taken an inhibitor lock.
* nss-myhostname will now also resolve "localhost"
implicitly. This makes /etc/hosts an optional file and
nicely handles that on IPv6 ::1 maps to both "localhost" and
the local hostname.
* gained a new call
sd_get_machine_names() to enumerate running containers and
VMs (currently only supported by very new libvirt and
nspawn). sd_login_monitor can now be used to watch
VMs/containers coming and going.
* .include is not allowed recursively anymore, and only in
unit files. Usually it is better to use drop-in snippets in
.d/*.conf anyway, as introduced with systemd 198.
* systemd-analyze gained a new "critical-chain" command that
determines the slowest chain of units run during system
boot-up. It is very useful for tracking down where
optimizing boot time is the most beneficial.
* systemd will no longer allow manipulating service paths in
the name=systemd:/system cgroup tree using ControlGroup= in
units. (But is still fine with it in all other dirs.)
* There's a new systemd-nspawn@.service service file that may
be used to easily run nspawn containers as system
services. With the container's root directory in
/var/lib/container/foobar it is now sufficient to run
"systemctl start systemd-nspawn@foobar.service" to boot it.
* systemd-cgls gained a new parameter "--machine" to list only
the processes within a certain container.
* ConditionSecurity= now can check for "apparmor". We still
are lacking checks for SMACK and IMA for this condition
check though. Patches welcome!
* A new configuration file /etc/systemd/sleep.conf has been
added that may be used to configure which kernel operation
systemd is supposed to execute when "suspend", "hibernate"
or "hybrid-sleep" is requested. This makes the new kernel
"freeze" state accessible to the user.
* ENV{SYSTEMD_WANTS} in udev rules will now implicitly escape
the passed argument if applicable.
Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Guthrie, Colin Walters,
Cristian Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Daniel Wallace, Dave Reisner,
Evangelos Foutras, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Harald Hoyer, Josh
Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn,
MUNEDA Takahiro, Mantas Mikulėnas, Mirco Tischler, Nathaniel
Chen, Nirbheek Chauhan, Ronny Chevalier, Ross Lagerwall, Tom
Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar, Ville Skyttä, Zbigniew
* The output of 'systemctl list-jobs' got some polishing. The
'--type=' argument may now be passed more than once. A new
command 'systemctl list-sockets' has been added which shows
a list of kernel sockets systemd is listening on with the
socket units they belong to, plus the units these socket
units activate.
* The experimental libsystemd-bus library got substantial
updates to work in conjunction with the (also experimental)
kdbus kernel project. It works well enough to exchange
messages with some sophistication. Note that kdbus is not
ready yet, and the library is mostly an elaborate test case
for now, and not installable.
* systemd gained a new unit 'systemd-static-nodes.service'
that generates static device nodes earlier during boot, and
can run in conjunction with udev.
* libsystemd-login gained a new call sd_pid_get_user_unit()
to retrieve the user systemd unit a process is running
in. This is useful for systems where systemd is used as
session manager.
* systemd-nspawn now places all containers in the new /machine
top-level cgroup directory in the name=systemd
hierarchy. libvirt will soon do the same, so that we get a
uniform separation of /system, /user and /machine for system
services, user processes and containers/virtual
machines. This new cgroup hierarchy is also useful to stick
stable names to specific container instances, which can be
recognized later this way (this name may be controlled
via systemd-nspawn's new -M switch). libsystemd-login also
gained a new call sd_pid_get_machine_name() to retrieve the
name of the container/VM a specific process belongs to.
* bootchart can now store its data in the journal.
* libsystemd-journal gained a new call
sd_journal_add_conjunction() for AND expressions to the
matching logic. This can be used to express more complex
logical expressions.
* journactl can now take multiple --unit= and --user-unit=
* The cryptsetup logic now understands the "luks.key=" kernel
command line switch for specifying a file to read the
decryption key from. Also, if a configured key file is not
found the tool will now automatically fall back to prompting
the user.
* Python systemd.journal module was updated to wrap recently
added functions from libsystemd-journal. The interface was
changed to bring the low level interface in s.j._Reader
closer to the C API, and the high level interface in
s.j.Reader was updated to wrap and convert all data about
an entry.
Contributions from: Anatol Pomozov, Auke Kok, Harald Hoyer,
Henrik Grindal Bakken, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart
Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Mantas Mikulėnas Marius Vollmer,
Martin Jansa, Martin Pitt, Michael Biebl, Michal Schmidt,
Mirco Tischler, Pali Rohar, Simon Peeters, Steven Hiscocks,
Tom Gundersen, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
* journalctl --update-catalog now understands a new --root=
option to operate on catalogs found in a different root
* During shutdown after systemd has terminated all running
services a final killing loop kills all remaining left-over
processes. We will now print the name of these processes
when we send SIGKILL to them, since this usually indicates a
* If /etc/crypttab refers to password files stored on
configured mount points automatic dependencies will now be
generated to ensure the specific mount is established first
before the key file is attempted to be read.
* 'systemctl status' will now show information about the
network sockets a socket unit is listening on.
* 'systemctl status' will also shown information about any
drop-in configuration file for units. (Drop-In configuration
files in this context are files such as
* systemd-cgtop now optionally shows summed up CPU times of
cgroups. Press '%' while running cgtop to switch between
percentage and absolute mode. This is useful to determine
which cgroups use up the most CPU time over the entire
runtime of the system. systemd-cgtop has also been updated
to be 'pipeable' for processing with further shell tools.
* 'hostnamectl set-hostname' will now allow setting of FQDN
* The formatting and parsing of time span values has been
changed. The parser now understands fractional expressions
such as "5.5h". The formatter will now output fractional
expressions for all time spans under 1min, i.e. "5.123456s"
rather than "5s 123ms 456us". For time spans under 1s
millisecond values are shown, for those under 1ms
microsecond values are shown. This should greatly improve
all time-related output of systemd.
* libsystemd-login and libsystemd-journal gained new
functions for querying the poll() events mask and poll()
timeout value for integration into arbitrary event
* localectl gained the ability to list available X11 keymaps
(models, layouts, variants, options).
* 'systemd-analyze dot' gained the ability to filter for
specific units via shell-style globs, to create smaller,
more useful graphs. I.e. it is now possible to create simple
graphs of all the dependencies between only target units, or
of all units that Avahi has dependencies with.
Contributions from: Cristian Rodríguez, Dr. Tilmann Bubeck,
Harald Hoyer, Holger Hans Peter Freyther, Kay Sievers, Kelly
Anderson, Koen Kooi, Lennart Poettering, Maksim Melnikau,
Marc-Antoine Perennou, Marius Vollmer, Martin Pitt, Michal
Schmidt, Oleksii Shevchuk, Ronny Chevalier, Simon McVittie,
Steven Hiscocks, Thomas Weißschuh, Umut Tezduyar, Václav
Pavlín, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, Łukasz Stelmach
* The boot-time readahead implementation for rotating media
will now read the read-ahead data in multiple passes which
consist of all read requests made in equidistant time
intervals. This means instead of strictly reading read-ahead
data in its physical order on disk we now try to find a
middle ground between physical and access time order.
* /etc/os-release files gained a new BUILD_ID= field for usage
on operating systems that provide continuous builds of OS
Contributions from: Auke Kok, Eelco Dolstra, Kay Sievers,
Lennart Poettering, Lukas Nykryn, Martin Pitt, Václav Pavlín
William Douglas, Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
* systemd-python gained an API exposing libsystemd-daemon.
* The SMACK setup logic gained support for uploading CIPSO
security policy.
* Behaviour of PrivateTmp=, ReadWriteDirectories=,
ReadOnlyDirectories= and InaccessibleDirectories= has
changed. The private /tmp and /var/tmp directories are now
shared by all processes of a service (which means
ExecStartPre= may now leave data in /tmp that ExecStart= of
the same service can still access). When a service is
stopped its temporary directories are immediately deleted
(normal clean-up with tmpfiles is still done in addition to
this though).
* By default, systemd will now set a couple of sysctl
variables in the kernel: the safe sysrq options are turned
on, IP route verification is turned on, and source routing
disabled. The recently added hardlink and softlink
protection of the kernel is turned on. These settings should
be reasonably safe, and good defaults for all new systems.
* The predictable network naming logic may now be turned off
with a new kernel command line switch: net.ifnames=0.
* A new libsystemd-bus module has been added that implements a
pretty complete D-Bus client library. For details see:
* journald will now explicitly flush the journal files to disk
at the latest 5min after each write. The file will then also
be marked offline until the next write. This should increase
reliability in case of a crash. The synchronization delay
can be configured via SyncIntervalSec= in journald.conf.
* There's a new unit that can be used
to pull in specific services when at least one remote file
system is to be mounted.
* There are new targets and as
canonical targets to pull user timer and path units in
from. This complements with a similar
purpose for socket units.
* libudev gained a new call udev_device_set_attribute_value()
to set sysfs attributes of a device.
* The udev daemon now sets the default number of worker
processes executed in parallel based on the number of available
CPUs instead of the amount of available RAM. This is supposed
to provide a more reliable default and limit a too aggressive
paralellism for setups with 1000s of devices connected.
Contributions from: Auke Kok, Colin Walters, Cristian
Rodríguez, Daniel Buch, Dave Reisner, Frederic Crozat, Hannes
Reinecke, Harald Hoyer, Jan Alexander Steffens, Jan
Engelhardt, Josh Triplett, Kay Sievers, Lennart Poettering,
Mantas Mikulėnas, Martin Pitt, Mathieu Bridon, Michael Biebl,
Michal Schmidt, Michal Sekletar, Miklos Vajna, Nathaniel Chen,
Oleksii Shevchuk, Ozan Çağlayan, Thomas Hindoe Paaboel
Andersen, Tollef Fog Heen, Tom Gundersen, Umut Tezduyar,
Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek
* Configuration of unit files may now be extended via drop-in
files without having to edit/override the unit files
themselves. More specifically, if the administrator wants to
change one value for a service file foobar.service he can
now do so by dropping in a configuration snippet into
/etc/systemd/system/foobar.service.d/*.conf. The unit logic
will load all these snippets and apply them on top of the
main unit configuration file, possibly extending or
overriding its settings. Using these drop-in snippets is
generally nicer than the two earlier options for changing
unit files locally: copying the files from
/usr/lib/systemd/system/ to /etc/systemd/system/ and editing
them there; or creating a new file in /etc/systemd/system/
that incorporates the original one via ".include". Drop-in
snippets into these .d/ directories can be placed in any
directory systemd looks for units in, and the usual
overriding semantics between /usr/lib, /etc and /run apply
for them too.
* Most unit file settings which take lists of items can now be
reset by assigning the empty string to them. For example,
normally, settings such as Environment=FOO=BAR append a new
environment variable assignment to the environment block,
each time they are used. By assigning Environment= the empty
string the environment block can be reset to empty. This is
particularly useful with the .d/*.conf drop-in snippets
mentioned above, since this adds the ability to reset list
settings from vendor unit files via these drop-ins.
* systemctl gained a new "list-dependencies" command for
listing the dependencies of a unit recursively.
* Inhibitors are now honored and listed by "systemctl
suspend", "systemctl poweroff" (and similar) too, not only
GNOME. These commands will also list active sessions by
other users.
* Resource limits (as exposed by the various control group
controllers) can now be controlled dynamically at runtime
for all units. More specifically, you can now use a command
like "systemctl set-cgroup-attr foobar.service cpu.shares
2000" to alter the CPU shares a specific service gets. These
settings are stored persistently on disk, and thus allow the
administrator to easily adjust the resource usage of
services with a few simple commands. This dynamic resource
management logic is also available to other programs via the
bus. Almost any kernel cgroup attribute and controller is
* systemd-vconsole-setup will now copy all font settings to
all allocated VTs, where it previously applied them only to
the foreground VT.
* libsystemd-login gained the new sd_session_get_tty() API